+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Effects of dietary cholesterol on antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed soybean meal-based diets



Effects of dietary cholesterol on antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed soybean meal-based diets



Fish and Shellfish Immunology 34(1): 324-331



This study evaluated the effects of dietary cholesterol on antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed soybean meal-based diets. Fish were fed diets supplemented with graded cholesterol levels (0 [control], 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5%) for nine weeks. The fish were then challenged by A. hydrophila and their survival rate recorded for the next week. Dietary cholesterol supplementation generally increased the serum and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) activities, but decreased the serum and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Further, the hepatic CAT and serum SOD, CAT, and TAC activities were significantly higher in fish fed diets supplemented with 0.9 or 1.2% cholesterol compared to those fed the control diet, whereas the serum and hepatic MDA contents were significantly lower. The respiratory burst activity, alternative complement activity, and hepatic lysozyme activity increased steadily when the supplemental cholesterol was increased by up to 1.2% and then declined with further addition. The serum lysozyme activity and phagocytic activity increased steadily with increasing dietary supplemental cholesterol level up to 0.9% and then declined with further addition. Dietary cholesterol supplementation generally enhanced the protection against A. hydrophila infection, and fish fed diets supplemented with 0.9 or 1.2% cholesterol exhibited the highest post-challenge survival rate. The results indicated that cholesterol may be under-supplied in rainbow trout fed soybean meal-based diets, and dietary cholesterol supplementation (0.9-1.2%) contributed to improved immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout against A. hydrophila.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 052862452

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 23207478

DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2012.11.008


Related references

Dietary fermentable fiber upregulated immune related genes expression, increased innate immune response and resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 41(2): 326-331, 2014

Effects of replacing soybean meal with rubber seed meal on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus). Fish and Shellfish Immunology 44(2): 436-444, 2015

Effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal or rapeseed meal. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 40(6): 1827-1838, 2014

Immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) to Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 4(4): 239-254, 1994

Improving the growth performance and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed soyabean meal-based diets using dietary cholesterol supplementation. British Journal of Nutrition 110(1): 29-39, 2013

Dietary β-glucans differentially modulate immune and stress-related gene expression in lymphoid organs from healthy and Aeromonas hydrophila-infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish and Shellfish Immunology 63: 285-296, 2017

Effect of partial dietary replacement of fishmeal by yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae meal on the innate immune response and intestinal antioxidant enzymes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish and Shellfish Immunology 83: 308-313, 2018

Development of immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) to Aeromonas hydrophila after the dietary application of garlic. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 30(3): 845-850, 2011

Effects of dietary soybean meal on the bile physiology in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 490: 303-310, 2018

The effects of dietary Immunogen on innate immune response, immune related genes expression and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish and Shellfish Immunology 37(2): 209-214, 2014

Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). International Microbiology 7(3): 207-211, 2004

The use of hazelnut meal as a substitute for soybean meal in the diets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 31(3): 145-151, 2007

Sunflower meal compared with soybean meal as partial substitutes for fish meal in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diets: protein and energy utilization. Aquaculture 128(3/4): 287-300, 1994

Adaptation to soybean meal in diets for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 153(3-4): 263-272, 1997

Use of dietary ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, as an immunostimulant to control Aeromonas hydrophila infections in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Diseases 32(11): 971-977, 2009