+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Free and serial recall of pictures, sounds, and words

Free and serial recall of pictures, sounds, and words

Memory and Cognition 3(6): 586-590

Pictures and sounds of familiar objects and their visual and auditory names were compared in free and serial recall tasks. The results of two experiments showed, most notably, that type of task interacted significantly with symbolic (verbal-nonverbal) and sensory (visual-auditory) modalities. Nonverbal items were remembered relatively better in free recall, whereas verbal items were superior in serial recall. In the visual modality, pictures were superior to words in both recall tasks; in the auditory modality, conversely, nonverbal sounds were inferior to words in serial recall but sounds and words did not differ in free recall. The results indicate that a satisfactory general theory of memory must encompass distinctions in both symbolic and sensory modalities as well as differences in the organizational demands of the memory task.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 053298816

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 24203897

DOI: 10.3758/bf03198221

Related references

Developmental Effects on Free Recall of Grouping Pictures and Words. Journal of General Psychology 110(1): 75-79, 1984

Sex differences in semantic clustering in free recall of words and pictures. Perceptual & Motor Skills 61(1): 231-235, 1985

Hypermnesia for pictures and for words the role of recall modality pictures vs. words. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 16(4): 258-260, 1980

Marihuana effects on free recall and subjective organization of pictures and words. Psychopharmacology 55(3): 257-262, 1977

The spacing effect in preschool children's free recall of pictures and words. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 31(1): 27-30, 1993

Concrete words are easier to recall than abstract words: Evidence for a semantic contribution to short-term serial recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory & Cognition 25(5): 1256-1271, 1999

Effects of concurrent auditory shadowing on free recall and recognition of pictures and words. Journal Of Experimental Psychology Human Learning & Memory: 415-422, 1975

Semantic contribution to verbal short-term memory: are pleasant words easier to remember than neutral words in serial recall and serial recognition?. Memory and Cognition 36(1): 35-42, 2008

Effects on free recall and recognition of transforming visually presented words and pictures into trace or imagery form. Journal of General Psychology 106(1st Half): 21-26, 1982

Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: the serial nature of recall and the effect of test expectancy. Memory and Cognition 36(1): 20-34, 2008

Hypermnesia for pictures: Incremental memory for pictures but not words in multiple recall trials. Cognitive Psychology 6(1): 159-171, 1974

Serial position effects and the Marbe effect in the free recall of meaningful words. Journal of General Psychology 59(2): 255-262, 1958

Interference effects on the recall of pictures, printed words, and spoken words. Contemporary Educational Psychology 7(1): 61-69, 1982

Pictures, words, and sounds: from which format are we best able to reason?. Journal of General Psychology 127(4): 439-459, 2000

Immediate and delayed recall of words and pictures. Canadian Journal of Psychology Revue Canadienne de Psychologie 26(4): 407-414, 1972