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Fruit and seed anatomy of Chenopodium and related genera (Chenopodioideae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae): implications for evolution and taxonomy



Fruit and seed anatomy of Chenopodium and related genera (Chenopodioideae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae): implications for evolution and taxonomy



Plos One 8(4): E61906



A comparative carpological study of 96 species of all clades formerly considered as the tribe Chenopodieae has been conducted for the first time. The results show important differences in the anatomical structure of the pericarp and seed coat between representatives of terminal clades including Chenopodium s.str.+Chenopodiastrum and the recently recognized genera Blitum, Oxybasis and Dysphania. Within Chenopodium the most significant changes in fruit and seed structure are found in members of C. sect. Skottsbergia. The genera Rhagodia and Einadia differ insignificantly from Chenopodium. The evolution of heterospermy in Chenopodium is discussed. Almost all representatives of the tribe Dysphanieae are clearly separated from other Chenopodioideae on the basis of a diverse set of characteristics, including the small dimensions of the fruits (especially in Australian taxa), their subglobose shape (excl. Teloxys and Suckleya), and peculiarities of the pericarp indumentum. The set of fruit and seed characters evolved within the subfamily Chenopodioideae is described. A recent phylogenetic hypothesis is employed to examine the evolution of three (out of a total of 21) characters, namely seed color, testa-cell protoplast characteristics and embryo orientation.

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Accession: 053315762

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PMID: 23626750

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061906



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