+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Genetic analysis of the biosynthesis of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, a major grape-derived aroma compound impacting wine quality



Genetic analysis of the biosynthesis of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, a major grape-derived aroma compound impacting wine quality



Plant Physiology 162(2): 604-615



Methoxypyrazines (MPs) are strongly odorant volatile molecules with vegetable-like fragrances that are widespread in plants. Some grapevine (Vitis vinifera) varieties accumulate significant amounts of MPs, including 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (IBMP), which is the major MP in grape berries. MPs are of particular importance in white Sauvignon Blanc wines. The typicality of these wines relies on a fine balance between the pea pod, capsicum character of MPs and the passion fruit/grapefruit character due to volatile thiols. Although MPs play a crucial role in Sauvignon varietal aromas, excessive concentrations of these powerful odorants alter wine quality and reduce consumer acceptance, particularly in red wines. The last step of IBMP biosynthesis has been proposed to involve the methoxylation of the nonvolatile precursor 2-hydroxy-3-isobutylpyrazine to give rise to the highly volatile IBMP. In this work, we have used a quantitative trait loci approach to investigate the genetic bases of IBMP biosynthesis. This has led to the identification of two previously uncharacterized S-adenosyl-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase genes, termed VvOMT3 and VvOMT4. Functional characterization of these two O-methyltransferases showed that the VvOMT3 protein was highly specific and efficient for 2-hydroxy-3-isobutylpyrazine methylation. Based on its differential expression in high- and low-MP-producing grapevine varieties, we propose that VvOMT3 is a key gene for IBMP biosynthesis in grapevine.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 053377700

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 23606597

DOI: 10.1104/pp.113.218313


Related references

Genetic Analysis of the Biosynthesis of 2-Methoxy-3-Isobutylpyrazine, a Major Grape-Derived Aroma Compound Impacting Wine Quality. Plant Physiology 162(2): 604-615, 2013

Study of a characteristic aroma fraction of the Cabernet-Sauvignon grape; identification of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l' Academie des Sciences, D 281(1): 75-78, 1975

Two O-methyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of methoxypyrazines: grape-derived aroma compounds important to wine flavour. Plant Molecular Biology 74(1-2): 77-89, 2010

Interactions between wine volatile compounds and grape and wine matrix components influence aroma compound headspace partitioning. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57(21): 10313-10322, 2009

Thermodynamics of binding of 2-methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine and 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine to the major urinary protein. Journal of the American Chemical Society 126(6): 1675-1681, 2004

2-Methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in grape berries and its dependence on genotype. Phytochemistry 71(17-18): 2190-2198, 2010

Meta-Analysis of the Core Aroma Components of Grape and Wine Aroma. Frontiers in Plant Science 7: 1472, 2016

Simplified method for detection and quantification of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in wine. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 55(3): 276-278, 2004

Location of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in Cabernet Sauvignon grape bunches and its extractability during vinification. American Journal of Enology & Viticulture 53(1): 1-5, 2002

Vine Nitrogen Status Does Not Have a Direct Impact on 2-Methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in Grape Berries and Wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63(44): 9789-9802, 2015

Sensory impact of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one added to a neutral Sauvignon blanc wine. South African Journal of Enology & Viticulture 20(2): 77-79, 1999

Crop Level and Harvest Date Impact on Four Ontario Wine Grape Cultivars. II. Wine Aroma Compounds and Sensory Analysis. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 39(2): 246-270, 2018

Optimization of an aroma sensor for assessing grape quality for wine making. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 5(2): 157-163, 2007

Preparation of labelled 2-methoxy-3-alkylpyrazines: Synthesis and characterization of deuterated 2-methoxy-3-isopropylyrazine and 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine. Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals 46(3): 243-253, 2003

Use of a flor velum yeast for modulating colour, ethanol and major aroma compound contents in red wine. Food Chemistry 213: 90-97, 2016