Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: pollution and ecological risk assessment in street dust of Tehran

Saeedi, M.; Li, L.Y.; Salmanzadeh, M.

Journal of Hazardous Materials 227-228: 9-17


ISSN/ISBN: 1873-3336
PMID: 22647232
DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.04.047
Accession: 053501976

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50 street dust samples from four major streets in eastern and southern Tehran, the capital of Iran, were analyzed for metal pollution (Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cd, Zn, Fe, Mn and Li). Hakanson's method was used to determine the Risk Index (RI) and ecological risks. Amongst these samples, 21 were also analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Correlation, cluster and principal component analyses identified probable natural and anthropogenic sources of contaminants. The dust had elevated concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and PAHs. Enrichment factors of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn showed that the dust is extremely enriched in these metals. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and PAHs and, to a lesser extent, Cr and Ni have common anthropogenic sources. While Mn and Li were identified to have natural sources, Cd may have different anthropogenic origins. All samples demonstrated high ecological risk. Traffic and related activities, petrogenic and pyrogenic sources are likely to be the main anthropogenic sources of heavy metals and PAHs in Tehran dust.