Huntingtin regulates RE1-silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) nuclear trafficking indirectly through a complex with REST/NRSF-interacting LIM domain protein (RILP) and dynactin p150 Glued
Journal of Biological Chemistry 283(50): 34880-34886
ISSN/ISBN: 0021-9258 PMID: 18922795 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.m804183200
Huntingtin has been reported to regulate the nuclear translocation of the transcriptional repressor RE1-silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF). The REST/NRSF-interacting LIM domain protein (RILP) has also been shown to regulate REST/NRSF nuclear translocation. Therefore, we were prompted to address the question of how two distinct proteins could have the same function. We initially used a yeast two-hybrid screen to look for an interaction between huntingtin and RILP. This screen identified dynactin p150(Glued) as an interacting protein. Coimmunoprecipitation of proteins in vitro expressed in a reticulocyte lysate system showed an interaction between REST/NRSF and RILP as well as between RILP and dynactin p150(Glued). Coimmunoprecipitation analysis further showed a complex containing RILP, dynactin p150(Glued), and huntingtin. Huntingtin did not interact directly with either REST/NRSF or RILP, but did interact with dynactin p150(Glued). The N-terminal fragment of wild-type huntingtin did not affect the interaction between dynactin p150(Glued) and RILP; however, mutant huntingtin weakened this interaction. We further show that HAP1 (huntingtin-associated protein-1) prevents this complex from translocating REST/NRSF to the nucleus. Thus, this study suggests that REST/NRSF, dynactin p150(Glued), huntingtin, HAP1, and RILP form a complex involved in the translocation of REST/NRSF into the nucleus and that HAP1 controls REST/NRSF cellular localization in neurons.