Impact of D-pinitol on the attenuation of proinflammatory cytokines, hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and protection of kidney tissue ultrastructure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Sivakumar, S.; Palsamy, P.; Subramanian, S.P.
Chemico-Biological Interactions 188(1): 237-245
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the progression and development of diabetes and its complications due to chronic hyperglycemia. The present study was aimed to investigate the kidney tissue protective nature of d-pinitol, a cyclitol present in soybean, by assessing the key markers of hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and ultrastructural alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of d-pinitol (50mg/kg body weight/day) for 30 days to diabetic group of rats showed a significant elevation in the level of total protein and significant decline in the levels of blood urea, serum uric acid, creatinine and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and kidney proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, NF-kappaB p65 subunit and nitrite. Further, d-pinitol administration elicited a significant attenuation in the activities of kidney enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) and the levels of kidney non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin E, vitamin C and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the diabetic group of rats, with a concomitant decline in the levels of kidney lipid peroxides, hydroperoxides and protein carbonyls. The histological and ultrastructural observations on the kidney tissues also confirmed the renoprotective nature of d-pinitol. Thus the present study demonstrated the renoprotective nature of d-pinitol by attenuating the hyperglycemia-mediated proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant competence in kidney tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.