In vitro and in vivo activities of linezolid alone and combined with vancomycin and imipenem against Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides
Ribes, S.; Pachón-Ibáñez, M.E.; Domínguez, M.A.; Fernández, R.; Tubau, F.; Ariza, J.; Gudiol, F.; Cabellos, C.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology 29(11): 1361-1367
ISSN/ISBN: 1435-4373 PMID: 20680368 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-010-1007-y
The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of linezolid (35 mg/kg/5 h), vancomycin (60 mg/kg/5 h), imipenem (30 mg/kg/5 h), linezolid+imipenem, linezolid+vancomycin and vancomycin+imipenem against two clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides using time-kill curves and the murine peritonitis model. Time-kill curves were performed over 24 h. For the murine peritonitis model, peritonitis was induced by the intraperitoneal inoculation of 10(8) CFU/ml of each bacterial strain. Four hours later (0 h), the mice were randomly assigned to a control group or to therapeutic groups receiving subcutaneous treatment for 25 h. Bacterial counts in peritoneal fluid, bacteraemia and mortality rates were determined. The time-kill curves showed that the addition of linezolid to imipenem yielded synergistic results after 24 h. The addition of linezolid decreased vancomycin activity. In the animal model, vancomycin and linezolid monotherapies produced comparable bacterial decreases in mice infected with each strain but linezolid achieved higher rates of blood sterilisation. Linezolid tested either in monotherapy or in combination showed similar efficacy against both strains in terms of bacterial killing, number of negative blood cultures and survival. Linezolid and vancomycin were moderately bactericidal and similar in efficacy against glycopeptide-intermediate or -resistant S. aureus. Linezolid combinations, as effective as linezolid tested alone, could be considered as alternative options for the treatment of glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus (GISA) infections.