In vitro anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of five medicinal plants against egg-hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus
Eguale, T.; Tadesse, D.; Giday, M.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137(1): 108-113
Senna occidentalis, Leonotis ocymifolia, Leucas martinicensis, Rumex abyssinicus, and Albizia schimperiana are traditionally used for treatment of various ailments including helminth infection in Ethiopia. In vitro egg hatch assay and larval development tests were conducted to determine the possible anthelmintic effects of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Senna occidentalis, aerial parts of Leonotis ocymifolia, Leucas martinicensis, Rumex abyssinicus, and stem bark of Albizia schimperiana on eggs and larvae of Haemonchus contortus. Both aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Leucas martinicensis, Leonotis ocymifolia and aqueous extract of Senna occidentalis and Albizia schimperiana induced complete inhibition of egg hatching at concentration less than or equal to 1mg/ml. Aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of all tested medicinal plants have shown statistically significant and dose dependent egg hatching inhibition. Based on ED(50), the most potent extracts were aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Leucas martinicensis (0.09 mg/ml), aqueous extracts of Rumex abyssinicus (0.11 mg/ml) and Albizia schimperiana (0.11 mg/ml). Most of the tested plant extracts have shown remarkable larval development inhibition. Aqueous extracts of Leonotis ocymifolia, Leucas martinicensis, Albizia schimperiana and Senna occidentalis induced 100, 99.85, 99.31, and 96.36% inhibition of larval development, respectively; while hydro-alcoholic extracts of Albizia schimperiana induced 99.09 inhibition at the highest concentration tested (50mg/ml). Poor inhibition was recorded for hydro-alcoholic extracts of Senna occidentalis (9%) and Leonotis ocymifolia (37%) at 50mg/ml. The overall findings of the current study indicated that the evaluated medicinal plants have potential anthelmintic effect and further in vitro and in vivo evaluation is indispensable to make use of these plants.