Influence of crude protein content, ingredient complexity, feed form, and duration of feeding of the Phase i diets on productive performance and nutrient digestibility of Iberian pigs
Berrocoso, J.D.; Saldaña, B.; Serrano, M.P.; Cámara, L.; Ibáñez, M.A.; Mateos, G.G.
Journal of Animal Science 91(3): 1237-1246
The influence of CP content and ingredient complexity, feed form, and duration of feeding of the Phase I diets on growth performance and total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of energy and nutrients was studied in Iberian pigs weaned at 28 d of age. There were 12 dietary treatments with 2 type of feeds (high-quality, HQ; and low-quality, LQ), 2 feed forms (pellets vs. mash), and 3 durations (7, 14, and 21 d) of supply of the Phase I diets. From d 7, 14, or 21 (depending on treatment) to d 35, all pigs received a common diet in mash form. Each treatment was replicated 3 times (6 pigs/pen). For the entire experiment, ADG (P < 0.05) and ADFI (P < 0.01) were less with the HQ than the LQ Phase I diets, but G:F was not affected. Pelleting of the Phase I diets did not affect ADG but improved G:F (P < 0.01). Feeding the Phase I diets from d 0 to 21 improved G:F (P < 0.05) but decreased ADG (P < 0.01) as compared with 7 or 14 d of feeding. Postweaning diarrhea (PWD) tended to be greater (P = 0.06) for pigs fed the HQ diets than pigs fed the LQ diets and pigs fed pellets than those fed mash (P < 0.001). Also, PWD was greater for pigs fed the Phase I diet for 14 or 21 d than those fed the diet for 7 d (P < 0.01). From d 0 to 21, ADG and G:F were not affected (P > 0.10) by feed quality, but feeding pellets or increasing the duration of feeding the Phase I diets improved G:F (P < 0.01). Also, in this period, PWD was greater with pellets than with mash and for pigs fed the Phase I diets for 14 or 21 d than for pigs fed the diet for only 7 d (P < 0.01). From d 21 to 35, pigs previously fed the LQ diet had greater ADG than pigs fed the HQ Phase I diets (P < 0.001). Also, pigs fed the Phase I diets for 21 d had decreased ADG (P < 0.05) and ADFI (P < 0.001) and reduced G:F (P < 0.05) than pigs fed these diets for 7 or 14 d. Organic matter digestibility was greater for pigs fed the HQ Phase I diets than pigs fed the LQ Phase I diets (P < 0.05). Pelleting improved TTAD of all nutrients (P < 0.01). It is concluded that HQ Phase I diets increased TTAD of nutrients but not feed efficiency of Iberian pigs from d 0 to 35. Also, pelleting improved energy and nutrient digestibility and feed efficiency. Increasing the duration of supply of the Phase I diets from 7 to 21 d improved feed efficiency but reduced ADG. Therefore, the use of LQ Phase I diets in pellet form for no more than 7 d after weaning is recommended in Iberian pigs.