Intratracheal administration of influenza virus is superior to intranasal administration as a model of acute lung injury
Morales-Nebreda, L.; Chi, M.; Lecuona, E.; Chandel, N.S.; Dada, L.A.; Ridge, K.; Soberanes, S.; Nigdelioglu, R.; Sznajder, J.I.; Mutlu, G.ök.M.; Budinger, G.R.S.; Radigan, K.A.
Journal of Virological Methods 209: 116-120
Infection of mice with human or murine adapted influenza A viruses results in a severe pneumonia. However, the results of studies from different laboratories show surprising variability, even in genetically similar strains. Differences in inoculum size related to the route of viral delivery (intranasal vs. intratracheal) might explain some of this variability. To test this hypothesis, mice were infected intranasally or intratracheally with different doses of influenza A virus (A/WSN/33 [H1N1]). Daily weights, a requirement for euthanasia, viral load in the lungs and brains, inflammatory cytokines, wet-to-dry ratio, total protein and histopathology of the infected mice were examined. With all doses of influenza tested, intranasal delivery resulted in less severe lung injury, as well as smaller and more variable viral loads in the lungs when compared with intratracheal delivery. Virus was not detected in the brain following either method of delivery. It is concluded that compared to intranasal infection, intratracheal infection with influenza A virus is a more reliable method to deliver virus to the lungs.