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Is pyogenic liver abscess associated with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis a distinct clinical entity? A retrospective analysis over a 10-year period in a regional hospital

Is pyogenic liver abscess associated with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis a distinct clinical entity? A retrospective analysis over a 10-year period in a regional hospital

European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 23(9): 770-777

Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC) is recognized as an important cause of pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA). Although it is endemic to Southeast Asia, it is seen increasing in the west mainly owing to immigration. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical characteristics of PLA in patients with RPC and without RPC. We performed a retrospective analysis involving patients with PLA. The demographic, clinical features, laboratory and imaging findings, management strategy, and outcome of patients with and without RPC were studied. From January 2000 to December 2009 inclusive, 319 patients (27 with RPC and 292 without RPC) had PLA. Patients with RPC had higher mean age (71.7 vs. 64.9 years; P=0.03) and tended to have more acute onset of presentation than it did in those without RPC. The common clinical features of the two groups were fever, chill, and right upper quadrant pain. Patients without RPC tended to have more respiratory symptoms and signs. The laboratory abnormalities of both groups shared common features such as anemia, leukocytosis, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, hypoalbuminemia, elevated total bilirubin, and alanine aminotransferase. Left lobe was predominantly involved in patients with RPC (51.9% vs. 23.6%; P<0.01) whereas those without RPC usually had PLA at right lobe (67.5 vs. 40.7%; P<0.01). Both groups also shared common radiological features such as hypoechoic in ultrasonograpphy, rim enhancement and septal lobulation in computed tomography. However, aerobila was found more in patients with RPC than those without RPC (25.9 vs. 5.5%; P<0.01) and the latter tended to have more abscess ruptures. The biliary tract disorder was the most common cause of the disease in the two groups. The microorganisms involved had distinct patterns between these two groups. Patients with RPC tended to have fewer complications than patients without RPC as there were fewer occurrences in metastatic infections, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and acute renal and respiratory failure. PLA in patients with RPC had higher recurrence rate than those without RPC (37 vs. 2.4%; P<0.01). The odds ratio of local recurrence between RPC and non-RPC group was 23.95 (95% confidence interval, 8.11-70.72). However, both were effectively managed by the combination of antibiotic and image-guided aspiration with/without drainage, and their mortality rates are comparable with each other. PLA associated with RPC tends to have distinct clinical syndrome in regards to different extent of clinical manifestations, radiological and microbiological features, and complications. Its recurrent rate is higher than that of non-RPC type. However, both can be effectively treated with a combination of antibiotic and image-guided aspiration with/without drainage.

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Accession: 053997463

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PMID: 21716118

DOI: 10.1097/MEG.0b013e328348cb9c

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