+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Local application of interleukin-6 to the dorsal root ganglion induces tumor necrosis factor-α in the dorsal root ganglion and results in apoptosis of the dorsal root ganglion cells

Local application of interleukin-6 to the dorsal root ganglion induces tumor necrosis factor-α in the dorsal root ganglion and results in apoptosis of the dorsal root ganglion cells

Spine 36(12): 926-932

The mechanisms of apoptosis behind the formation of tissue reactions at the surface of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) exposed to the nucleus pulposus were studied with special reference to the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6), using electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry in rats. To study the role of IL-6 on the DRG. It has been reported that nucleus pulposus cells are capable to produce proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6. Recently, it was observed that local application of nucleus pulposus induced a characteristic tissue reaction at the surface of the DRG. This change was due to apoptosis of DRG neurons. However, the role of IL-6 is not known regarding the apoptosis of the DRG neurons. Recombinant IL-6 was applied between the L4 DRG and the dura to mimic a disc herniation of the L4-L5 disc in rats. The L4 DRGs were resected 24 hours after surgery. The sections were processed for immunohistochemistry using antisera to TNF-α. Furthermore, the sections of the specimens were observed using light and electron microscopy to confirm the induced apoptosis of the DRG neurons. The sections were also processed for immunohistochemistry, using antisera to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and Caspase 3. TNF-α immunoreactivity was observed in the peripheral area of DRG at the site of the application of IL-6. Typical changes of the cell nuclei were observed in the DRG by light and electron microscopy, indicating the presence of apoptosis. The presence of ssDNA and Caspase 3 further enhanced the impression that there was apoptosis of the DRG neurons. IL-6 seemed to induce TNF-α at the surface of DRG exposed to IL-6 and to induce a characteristic reaction at the surface of the DRG. IL-6 may thus play an important role in nucleus pulposus-induced apoptosis of the DRG neurons as well as TNF-α.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 054150659

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 21192292

DOI: 10.1097/brs.0b013e3181e7f4a9

Related references

Morphological changes of rat dorsal root ganglion cells in the process forming period ii. time sequential observation of dorsal root ganglion cells in culture. Sapporo Medical Journal 55(1): 1-10, 1986

Chronic compression of mouse dorsal root ganglion alters voltage-gated sodium and potassium currents in medium-sized dorsal root ganglion neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 106(6): 3067-3072, 2011

AAV8(gfp) preferentially targets large diameter dorsal root ganglion neurones after both intra-dorsal root ganglion and intrathecal injection. Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences 49(4): 464-474, 2012

Distinct structure-activity relations for stimulation of 45Ca uptake and for high affinity binding in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and dorsal root ganglion membranes. Molecular Brain Research. 35(1-2): 173-182, 1996

Sympathectomy reduces mechanical allodynia, tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression, and dorsal root ganglion apoptosis following nerve root crush injury. Spine 33(11): 1163-1169, 2008

Developmentally regulated neurite outgrowth response from dorsal root ganglion neurons to heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM) and the expression of HB-GAM in the targets of the developing dorsal root ganglion neurites. European Journal of Neuroscience 8(8): 1658-1665, 1996

Immunohistochemical demonstration of the calcium channel alpha 2 subunit in the chicken dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord: A special reference to colocalization with calbindin-D28k in dorsal root ganglion neurons. Neuroscience Research 59(3): 304-308, 2007

Expressing Constitutively Active Rheb in Adult Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Enhances the Integration of Sensory Axons that Regenerate Across a Chondroitinase-Treated Dorsal Root Entry Zone Following Dorsal Root Crush. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 9: 49, 2016

The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in apoptosis of dorsal root ganglion cells induced by herniated nucleus pulposus in rats. Spine 33(2): 155-162, 2008

Effects of electro-acupuncture on PDGF expression in spared dorsal root ganglion and associated dorsal horn subjected to partial dorsal root ganglionectomy in cats. Neurochemical Research 33(3): 437-443, 2008

Changes in responses of wide dynamic range neurons in the spinal dorsal horn after dorsal root or dorsal root ganglion compression. Spine 21(12): 1408-14; Discussion 1414-5, 1996

Spinal cord compression and dorsal root injury cause up-regulation of activating transcription factor-3 in large-diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons. European Journal of Neuroscience 23(1): 273-278, 2006

Local application of nucleus pulposus induces expression OF P2X3 in rat dorsal root ganglion cells. Fukushima Journal of Medical Science 58(1): 17-21, 2012

Loss of dorsal root ganglion cells concomitant with dorsal root axon sprouting following segmental nerve lesions. Neuroscience. 81(2): 527-534, 1997

Effects of interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor on sensitivity of dorsal root ganglion and peripheral receptive fields in rats. European Spine Journal 15(10): 1529-1537, 2006