+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Long-term exposure to constituents of fine particulate air pollution and mortality: results from the California Teachers Study

Long-term exposure to constituents of fine particulate air pollution and mortality: results from the California Teachers Study

Environmental Health Perspectives 118(3): 363-369

Several studies have reported associations between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular mortality. However, the health impacts of long-term exposure to specific constituents of PM(2.5) (PM with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm) have not been explored. We used data from the California Teachers Study, a prospective cohort of active and former female public school professionals. We developed estimates of long-term exposures to PM(2.5) and several of its constituents, including elemental carbon, organic carbon (OC), sulfates, nitrates, iron, potassium, silicon, and zinc. Monthly averages of exposure were created using pollution data from June 2002 through July 2007. We included participants whose residential addresses were within 8 and 30 km of a monitor collecting PM(2.5) constituent data. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for long-term exposure for mortality from all nontraumatic causes, cardiopulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and pulmonary disease. Approximately 45,000 women with 2,600 deaths lived within 30 km of a monitor. We observed associations of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and IHD mortality with PM(2.5) mass and each of its measured constituents, and between pulmonary mortality and several constituents. For example, for cardiopulmonary mortality, HRs for interquartile ranges of PM(2.5), OC, and sulfates were 1.55 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.431.69], 1.80 (95% CI, 1.681.93), and 1.79 (95% CI, 1.582.03), respectively. Subsequent analyses indicated that, of the constituents analyzed, OC and sulfates had the strongest associations with all four outcomes. Long-term exposures to PM(2.5) and several of its constituents were associated with increased risks of all-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality in this cohort. Constituents derived from combustion of fossil fuel (including diesel), as well as those of crustal origin, were associated with some of the greatest risks. These results provide additional evidence that reduction of ambient PM(2.5) may provide significant public health benefits.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 054164875

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 20064787

DOI: 10.1289/ehp.0901181

Related references

Long-Term Exposure to Constituents of Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality: Results from the California Teachers Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 118(3): 363-369, 2010

Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Mortality Among Canadian Women. Epidemiology 26(4): 536-545, 2015

Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. JAMA 287(9): 1132-1141, 2002

Associations between long-term exposure to chemical constituents of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mortality in Medicare enrollees in the eastern United States. Environmental Health Perspectives 123(5): 467-474, 2015

Associations of mortality with long-term exposures to fine and ultrafine particles, species and sources: results from the California Teachers Study Cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives 123(6): 549-556, 2015

Long-term exposure to elemental constituents of particulate matter and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cohorts: results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects. Environment International 66(): 97-106, 2014

Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in nine California counties: results from CALFINE. Environmental Health Perspectives 114(1): 29-33, 2006

The effects of components of fine particulate air pollution on mortality in california: results from CALFINE. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(1): 13-19, 2007

Cardiovascular remodeling in response to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution. Circulation. Heart Failure 5(4): 452-461, 2012

Long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiorespiratory disease in the California teachers study cohort. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 184(7): 828-835, 2011

STROBE-Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospitalization Due to Peptic Ulcers. Medicine 95(18): E3543, 2016

Long-term fine particulate matter exposure and mortality from diabetes in Canada. Diabetes Care 36(10): 3313-3320, 2013

Association between Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Mortality in a South Korean National Cohort: Comparison across Different Exposure Assessment Approaches. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14(10):, 2017

Global estimates of mortality associated with long-term exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115(38): 9592-9597, 2018

Long-Term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Mortality From Diabetes Mellitus in Canada. 2013