Long-term outcomes of alemtuzumab-based reduced-intensity conditioned hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia secondary to myelodysplastic syndrome
Potter, V.T.; Krishnamurthy, P.; Barber, L.D.; Lim, Z.; Kenyon, M.; Ireland, R.M.; de Lavallade, H.; Dhouri, A.; Marsh, J.C.W.; Marcus, R.; Devereux, S.; Ho, A.; Pagliuca, A.; Mufti, G.J.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation Journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 20(1): 111-117
ISSN/ISBN: 1523-6536 PMID: 24216184 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.10.021
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) offers a potential cure for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who are ineligible for standard-intensity regimens. Previously published data from our institution suggest excellent outcomes at 1 yr using a uniform fludarabine, busulfan, and alemtuzumab-based regimen. Here we report long-term follow-up of 192 patients with MDS and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) secondary to MDS (MDS-AML) transplanted with this protocol, using sibling (n = 45) or matched unrelated (n = 147) donors. The median age of the cohort was 57 yr (range, 21 to 72 yr), and median follow-up was 4.5 yr (range, 0.1 to 10.6 yr). The 5-yr overall survival (OS), event-free survival, and nonrelapse mortality were 44%, 33%, and 26% respectively. The incidence of de novo chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was low at 19%, illustrating the efficacy of alemtuzumab for GVHD prophylaxis. Conversely, the 5-yr relapse rate was 51%. For younger patients (age <50 yr), the 5-yr OS and relapse rates were 58% and 39%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, advanced age predicted significantly worse outcomes, with patients age >60 yr having a 5-yr OS of 15% and relapse rate of 66%. Patients receiving preemptive donor lymphocyte infusions had an impressive 5-yr OS of 67%, suggesting that this protocol may lend itself to the incorporation of immunotherapeutic strategies. Overall, these data demonstrate good 5-yr OS for patients with MDS and MDS-AML undergoing alemtuzumab-based RIC-HSCT. The low rate of chronic GVHD is encouraging, and comparative studies with other RIC protocols are warranted.