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Management of tics and Tourette's disorder: an update

Management of tics and Tourette's disorder: an update

Expert Opinion on PharmacoTherapy 11(11): 1813-1822

Tic disorders are fairly prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders. While a proportion of children may not present to the clinician's office for management of tic disorders, another proportion may present with severe symptoms that impair social and occupational functioning. A combination of psychosocial interventions and pharmacological approaches are required in these cases. While alpha-2 agonists and dopamine antagonists constitute the mainstay of pharmacological agents for tic disorders, advances in neurobiology and psychopharmacology have discovered newer avenues for treatment of tic disorders. Apart from reviewing evidence based literature and recent updates on alpha-2 agonists and dopamine antagonists in treating tic disorders, the review also includes novel treatment approaches such as glutamate modulators, nicotinic agents, antiandrogens and botulinum injection. In addition, a brief overview of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), deep brain stimulation (DBS) and habit reversal training is also provided. A clear and concise review of the therapeutic options and advances in management of tic disorders. In addition to psychosocial interventions, alpha-2 agonists and dopamine antagonists constitute the mainstay of treatment approaches for treating tic disorders. Additional treatment options such as ropinirole, pramipexole and tetrabenazine may be useful if patients do not respond to the primary agents. Severe intractable cases might need a referral to specialist centers to consider the possibility of using ECT, TMS or DBS.

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Accession: 054247655

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PMID: 20459362

DOI: 10.1517/14656566.2010.486402

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