Marek's disease virus-induced transient paralysis in chickens. 3. Differentiation of field cases from classical Marek's disease by central nervous system lesions
Swayne, D.E.; Fletcher, O.J.; Tyler, D.E.; Page, R.K.
Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A 18(3): 413-431
Vasculitis with intramural pseudocyst formation primarily in the cerebellar white matter, but also in nuclei of the medulla, resulted in leakage of IgG and albumin and vacuolation of the neuropil (vasogenic oedema) in brains from chickens with clinical signs of Marek's disease virus (MDV)-induced transient paralysis (TP). Demyelination was absent. Chickens that had recovered from TP had a restored blood-brain-barrier, indicated by the rarity of vasculitis and vascular intramural pseudocysts in the cerebellum. In addition, the vacuolation and protein leakage were greatly decreased. The minor vacuolation resulted primarily from intramyelinic (cytotoxic) oedema. The small quantity of extravascular protein was being removed by microglial cells and astrocytes. In one chicken which failed to fully recover from TP (TP-prolonged) there was neither vasogenic oedema, cytotoxic oedema, nor vasculitis in the cerebellum. The medulla of the TP-prolonged chicken had a severe lymphocytosis, swollen axons, neuronal degeneration, secondary demyelination and some associated serum protein leakage. All TP-affected and TP-recovered chickens, and the TP-prolonged chicken, had perivascular mononuclear cell cuffs within all brain sections. Chickens with classical Marek's disease (MD) generally lacked CNS vacuolation, perivascular mononuclear cell cuffs, vasculitis and serum protein leakage. However, in a few cases of MD with severe perivascular mononuclear cell cuffs, focal demyelinating plaques were seen. These plaques had associated vacuolation, serum protein leakage, axonal spheroids and neuronal degeneration.