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Mechanism of freezing of water in contact with mesoporous silicas MCM-41, SBA-15 and SBA-16: role of boundary water of pore outlets in freezing


Mechanism of freezing of water in contact with mesoporous silicas MCM-41, SBA-15 and SBA-16: role of boundary water of pore outlets in freezing



Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: Pccp 13(38): 17222-17233



ISSN/ISBN: 1463-9076

PMID: 21879058

DOI: 10.1039/c1cp21458f

The freezing mechanism of water contacted with mesoporous silicas with uniform pore shapes, both cylindrical and cagelike, was studied by thermodynamic and structural analyses with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) together with adsorption measurements. In the DSC data extra exothermic peaks were found at around 230 K for water confined in SBA-15, in addition to that due to the freezing of pore water. These peaks are most likely to be ascribed to the freezing of water present over the micropore and/or mesopore outlets of coronas in SBA-15. Freezing of water confined in SBA-16 was systematically analysed by DSC with changing the pore size. The freezing temperature was found to be around 232 K, close to the homogeneous nucleation temperature of bulk water, independent of the pore size when the pore diameter (d) < 7.0 nm. Water confined in the cagelike pores of SBA-16 is probably surrounded by a water layer (boundary water) at the outlets of channels to interconnect the pores and of fine corona-like pores, which is similar to that present at the outlet of cylindrical pores in MCM-41 and of cylindrical channels in SBA-15. The presence of the boundary water would be a key for water in SBA-16 to freeze at the homogeneous nucleation temperature. This phenomenon is similar to those well known for water droplets in oil and water droplets of clouds in the sky. The XRD data showed that the cubic ice I(c) was formed in SBA-16 as previously found in SBA-15 when d < 8.0 nm.

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