+ Site Statistics
References:
52,654,530
Abstracts:
29,560,856
PMIDs:
28,072,755
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Medicinal use of cannabis in the United States: historical perspectives, current trends, and future directions



Medicinal use of cannabis in the United States: historical perspectives, current trends, and future directions



Journal of Opioid Management 5(3): 153-168



Cannabis (marijuana) has been used for medicinal purposes for millennia, said to be first noted by the Chinese in c. 2737 BCE. Medicinal cannabis arrived in the United States much later, burdened with a remarkably checkered, yet colorful, history. Despite early robust use, after the advent of opioids and aspirin, medicinal cannabis use faded. Cannabis was criminalized in the United States in 1937, against the advice of the American Medical Association submitted on record to Congress. The past few decades have seen renewed interest in medicinal cannabis, with the National Institutes of Health, the Institute of Medicine, and the American College of Physicians, all issuing statements of support for further research and development. The recently discovered endocannabinoid system has greatly increased our understanding of the actions of exogenous cannabis. Endocannabinoids appear to control pain, muscle tone, mood state, appetite, and inflammation, among other effects. Cannabis contains more than 100 different cannabinoids and has the capacity for analgesia through neuromodulation in ascending and descending pain pathways, neuroprotection, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This article reviews the current and emerging research on the physiological mechanisms of cannabinoids and their applications in managing chronic pain, muscle spasticity, cachexia, and other debilitating problems.

(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 054315224

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 19662925


Related references

Programs for Children and Adolescents With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in the United States: A Historical Overview, Current Perspectives, and Future Directions. Preventing School Failure Alternative Education for Children and Youth 50(2): 7-13, 2006

Therapeutic peptides: Historical perspectives, current development trends, and future directions. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry 26(10): 2700-2707, 2017

Surveillance of occupational illness and injury in the United States: current perspectives and future directions. Journal of Public Health Policy 9(2): 198-221, 1988

Women's leadership in neuropsychology: historical perspectives, present trends, and future directions. Clinical Neuropsychologist 32(2): 217-234, 2018

Antivirals historical perspectives current status and future directions. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Supplement (14 PART D): 42, 1990

The discipline of nursing: historical roots, current perspectives, future directions. Journal of Advanced Nursing 18(10): 1651-1656, 1993

Endothelial keratoplasty: historical perspectives, current techniques, future directions. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien d'Ophtalmologie 44(4): 401-405, 2009

Multifunctional ligands in medicinal inorganic chemistry--current trends and future directions. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 12(3): 122-144, 2012

Cancer risk assessment: historical perspectives, current issues, and future directions. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 19(3): 161-185, 1996

Percutaneous coronary intervention: historical perspectives, current status, and future directions. American Heart Journal 146(5): 787-796, 2003

Perspectives on research in autism Current trends and future directions. Berkell, D E Autism: Identification, education, and treatment : 21-51, 1993

The coupling factor-ATPase of chloroplants: historical perspectives, some current research and future directions. Current topics in plant biochemistry and physiology 1983: proceedings inaugural Plant Biochemistry and Physiology Symposium held Univ Missouri Columbia 7-9 April 1982 editorial committee: DD Randall et al: 121, 1983

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement: historical perspectives, current evidence, and future directions. American Heart Journal 168(4): 414-423, 2015

Psychiatric brain banking: three perspectives on current trends and future directions. Biological Psychiatry 69(2): 104-112, 2011

Fisheries and trade of seahorses in Brazil historical perspective, current trends, and future directions. Biodiversity and Conservation 20(9): 1951-1971, 2011