+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Metal lost and found: dissipative uses and releases of copper in the United States 1975-2000



Metal lost and found: dissipative uses and releases of copper in the United States 1975-2000



Science of the Total Environment 417-418: 138-147



Metals are used in a variety of ways, many of which lead to dissipative releases to the environment. Such releases are relevant from both a resource use and an environmental impact perspective. We present a historical analysis of copper dissipative releases in the United States from 1975 to 2. We situate all dissipative releases in copper's life cycle and introduce a conceptual framework by which copper dissipative releases may be categorized in terms of intentionality of use and release. We interpret our results in the context of larger trends in production and consumption and government policies that have served as drivers of intentional copper releases from the relevant sources. Intentional copper releases are found to be both significant in quantity and highly variable. In 1975, for example, the largest source of intentional releases was from the application of copper-based pesticides, and this decreased more than 5% over the next 25 years; all other sources of intentional releases increased during that period. Overall, intentional copper releases decreased by approximately 15% from 1975 to 2. Intentional uses that are unintentionally released such as copper from roofing, increased by the same percentage. Trace contaminant sources such as fossil fuel combustion, i.e., sources where both the use and the release are unintended, increased by nearly 5%. Intentional dissipative uses are equivalent to 6% of unintentional copper dissipative releases and more than five times that from trace sources. Dissipative copper releases are revealed to be modest when compared to bulk copper flows in the economy, and we introduce a metric, the dissipation index, which may be considered an economy-wide measure of resource efficiency for a particular substance. We assess the importance of dissipative releases in the calculation of recycling rates, concluding that the inclusion of dissipation in recycling rate calculations has a small, but discernible, influence, and should be included in such calculations.A framework for the categorization of dissipative releases is developed. A metric for an economy-wide measure of resource efficiency is introduced. Intentional copper releases are significant in quantity and highly variable. Intentional dissipative uses are more than five times that from trace sources. Dissipative releases have a modest, but discernible impact on recycling rates.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 054346131

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 22248854

DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.09.075


Related references

The Mineral Position of the United States, 1975-2000. Engineering Geology 7(4): 406-407, 1973

An assessment of water resources in the United States, 1975-2000. Resource constrained economics: the North America dilemma: based on material presented at the 34th annual meeting of the Soil Conservation Society of America July 29 August 1-1979 Chateau Laurier Ottawa Ontario: 5, 1980

"Lost manhood" found: male sexual impotence and Victorian culture in the United States. Journal of the History of Sexuality 3(1): 33-57, 1992

Illuminating tungsten's life cycle in the United States: 1975-2000. Environmental Science & Technology 42(10): 3835-3842, 2008

Years of potential life lost from unintentional child and adolescent injuries--United States, 2000-2009. Journal of Safety Research 45(): 127-131, 2014

Smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses--United States, 2000-2004. Mmwr. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57(45): 1226-1228, 2008

State-specific smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost--United States, 2000-2004. Mmwr. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 58(2): 29-33, 2009

Impact of reduced tobacco smoking on lung cancer mortality in the United States during 1975-2000. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 104(7): 541-548, 2012

Migration and the regional redistribution of nonearnings income in the United States: metropolitan and nonmetropolitan perspectives from 1975 to 2000. Environment and Planning A 37(9): 1613-1636, 2005

Chapter 15: Impact of tobacco control on lung cancer mortality in the United States over the period 1975-2000--summary and limitations. Risk Analysis 32(Suppl. 1): S190-S201, 2013

Years of potential life lost from unintentional injuries among persons aged 0-19 years - United States, 2000-2009. Mmwr. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 61(41): 830-833, 2012

Does the Modernization of Environmental Enforcement Reduce Toxic Releases? An Examination of Self-policing, Criminal Prosecutions, and Toxic Releases in the United States, 19882014. Sociological Spectrum 37(1): 48-62, 2017

The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 1975 summary. United States, January--December 1975. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 13, Data From the National Health Survey: I-Vi, 1-62, 1978

Costs of producing milk in the United States, 1975 and 1976; prepared by the Economic Research Service; U.S. department of Agriculture for the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; United States Senate. 1977

Related demand for broiler meat in the United States, by geographic regions, by states, and urbanizations by states, projected to years 1970, 1975, and 1980. Tech. Bull. Agric. Exp. Stn, Univ. Ga. NS. 45, 66, 1965