Microbiologic changes in subgingival plaque after removal of fixed orthodontic appliances
Choi, D.-S.; Cha, B.-K.; Jost-Brinkmann, P.-G.; Lee, S.-Y.; Chang, B.-S.; Jang, I.; Song, J.-S.
Angle Orthodontist 79(6): 1149-1155
ISSN/ISBN: 0003-3219 PMID: 19852608 DOI: 10.2319/111808-593r.1
To evaluate changes that occur in the subgingival microbiota after removal of fixed orthodontic appliances using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thirty orthodontic patients (11 males and 19 females; aged 20 +/- 7.3 yr) were included in this study. Subgingival plaque samplings were gathered from the disto-buccal gingival crevice of the left upper central incisors and the left lower central incisors, and from the mesio-buccal gingival crevice of the left upper first molars and the left lower first molars, at two different times: 2 weeks before appliance removal (T1), and 3 months after appliance removal (T2). DNA was extracted from the samples and the 16S rRNA-based PCR detection method was used to determine the prevalence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans , Tannerella forsythia , Campylobacter rectus , Eikenella corrodens , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia , Prevotella nigrescens , and Treponema denticola , which are considered as putative periodontopathogens. The frequency of positive sites at T1 and T2 was 65% and 43.3% for C. rectus , and 53.3% and 30.8% for E. corrodens , respectively. For the other bacteria, the frequency tended to be reduced between times. Periodontopathogens during orthodontic treatment were significantly reduced within 3 months of appliance removal. However, how long it takes to return to the preorthodontic composition of the subgingival microbiota and whether it happens at all remain to be seen.