+ Site Statistics
References:
54,258,434
Abstracts:
29,560,870
PMIDs:
28,072,757
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Motor cortex-evoked activity in reciprocal muscles is modulated by reward probability



Motor cortex-evoked activity in reciprocal muscles is modulated by reward probability



Plos One 9(6): E90773



Horizontal intracortical projections for agonist and antagonist muscles exist in the primary motor cortex (M1), and reward may induce a reinforcement of transmission efficiency of intracortical circuits. We investigated reward-induced change in M1 excitability for agonist and antagonist muscles. Participants were 8 healthy volunteers. Probabilistic reward tasks comprised 3 conditions of 30 trials each: 30 trials contained 10% reward, 30 trials contained 50% reward, and 30 trials contained 90% reward. Each trial began with a cue (red fixation cross), followed by blue circle for 1 s. The subjects were instructed to perform wrist flexion and press a button with the dorsal aspect of middle finger phalanx as quickly as possible in response to disappearance of the blue circle without looking at their hand or the button. Two seconds after the button press, reward/non-reward stimulus was randomly presented for 2-s duration. The reward stimulus was a picture of Japanese 10-yen coin, and each subject received monetary reward at the end of experiment. Subjects were not informed of the reward probabilities. We delivered transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left M1 at the midpoint between center of gravities of agonist flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and antagonist extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles at 2 s after the red fixation cross and 1 s after the reward/non-reward stimuli. Relative motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes at 2 s after the red fixation cross were significantly higher for 10% reward probability than for 90% reward probability, whereas relative MEP amplitudes at 1 s after reward/non-reward stimuli were significantly higher for 90% reward probability than for 10% and 50% reward probabilities. These results implied that reward could affect the horizontal intracortical projections in M1 for agonist and antagonist muscles, and M1 excitability including the reward-related circuit before and after reward stimulus could be differently altered by reward probability.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 054476011

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 24603644

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090773


Related references

Corticospinal activity evoked and modulated by non-invasive stimulation of the intact human motor cortex. Journal of Physiology 592(19): 4115-4128, 2015

Functional network reorganization in motor cortex can be explained by reward-modulated Hebbian learning. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 2009: 1105-1113, 2009

Reciprocal inhibition in co-contracting forearm muscles during suppression of motor cortical output Evidence suggesting that the central command for decreased reciprocal inhibition is uncoupled from motor cortical activity. Journal of Physiology (Cambridge) 507P: 34P-35P, March, 1998

Perturbation-evoked responses in primary motor cortex are modulated by behavioral context. Journal of Neurophysiology 112(11): 2985-3000, 2015

Reciprocal effects of single motor cortex cells on flexor and extensor wrist muscles in the primate. Anatomical Record 202(3): 93A-94A, 1982

Rapid processing of both reward probability and reward uncertainty in the human anterior cingulate cortex. Plos One 6(12): E29633, 2012

Inferior frontal cortex activity is modulated by reward sensitivity and performance variability. Biological Psychology 114: 127-137, 2016

Surgical management for preserving motor function in patients with gliomas near the primary motor cortex: usefulness of preoperative identification of motor cortex and intraoperative monitoring of motor evoked potentials. No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery 26(7): 599-606, 1998

Instructed delay activity in the human prefrontal cortex is modulated by monetary reward expectation. Cerebral Cortex 13(3): 318-327, 2003

The activity in the contralateral primary motor cortex, dorsal premotor and supplementary motor area is modulated by performance gains. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8: 201, 2014

Reward-related activity in the human motor cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience 27(7): 1836-1842, 2008

A propriospinal-like contribution to EMG responses evoked in wrist extensor muscles by transcranial stimulation of the motor cortex in man. Journal of Physiology (Cambridge) 480P(0): 44P, 1994

A propriospinal-like contribution to electromyographic responses evoked in wrist extensor muscles by transcranial stimulation of the motor cortex in man. Experimental Brain Research. 109(3): 495-499, 1996

Temporal activity patterns within the cerebellar cortex evoked by the cerebral cortex Studies of the lingual motor system. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 23(1-2): 18, 1997

Long-lasting modulation of human motor cortex following prolonged transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of forearm muscles: evidence of reciprocal inhibition and facilitation. Experimental Brain Research 161(4): 457-464, 2004