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Oxidative and nitrative stress markers in glaucoma

Oxidative and nitrative stress markers in glaucoma

Free Radical Biology and Medicine 45(4): 367-376

Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy and is the leading cause of blindness in the United States and other industrialized countries. Elevated pressure in the eye is a risk factor for glaucoma and indeed experimental studies of induced pressure elevation in nonhuman primate's results in typical glaucomatous optic nerve damage. However, normal intraocular pressure can also lead to loss of vision in glaucoma. Although the initiating causes leading to glaucoma are unknown, oxidative and nitrative stress appears to play a role in the progressive neuronal death that is characteristic of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Increased markers of oxidative stress that have been reported in glaucoma include protein nitrotyrosine, carbonyls in proteins, lipid oxidation products and oxidized DNA bases. Studies have also highlighted the role of nitric oxide in glaucoma by reporting the presence of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the iris-ciliary body, retina and in the glaucomatous optic nerve head of experimental rat models. This review discusses the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the pathogenesis of glaucoma and examines the relevance of antioxidants in neurodegeneration associated with the disease. It is concluded that oxidative and nitrative stress have a pathogenic role in glaucoma.

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Accession: 054825572

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 18489911

DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.04.026

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