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Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of minor and trace elements in gallstones of Nigerian patients

Alatise, O.I.; Obiajunwa, E.I.; Lawal, O.O.; Adesunkanmi, A.R.K.

Biological Trace Element Research 134(1): 13-24

2010


ISSN/ISBN: 0163-4984
PMID: 19609492
DOI: 10.1007/s12011-009-8453-3
Accession: 054874227

Gallstone disease is a major health problem in many parts of the world. In Nigeria, however, only a few cases of gallstone disease are reported. Minor/trace elements are reported to play a significant role in the formation of gallstones. This study was conducted to assess the minor elements in gallstone of Nigerian patients who had cholecystectomy in our institution using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. We also compare the findings with previous reports from outside Nigeria. Fourteen patients who had cholecystectomy for calculous cholecystitis at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between March 2006 and July 2008, had the stone retrieved. The stones were analyzed for trace elements at the Center for Energy Research and Developments of the University using PIXE experiments. Certified standard reference material, NIST 1577a (bovine liver), was equally analyzed to confirm the accuracy of the experimental procedure. Computer code GUPIXWIN was used to analyze the data. Fourteen elements, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, bromide, lead, titanium, rubidium, and strontium, were detected in most of the samples. The concentrations of the elements varied in the different samples, ranging from a few parts per million to a few percent. Ca was the major constituent of all samples. The black sand-like samples had very high levels of P, S, K, and Pb, which were different from a previous report. The distribution of trace elements in stones in Nigeria patients is different from previous report outside Nigeria, and this may have some role in the occurrence of gallstones in the black African.

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