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Peach fruit ripening: A proteomic comparative analysis of the mesocarp of two cultivars with different flesh firmness at two ripening stages

Peach fruit ripening: A proteomic comparative analysis of the mesocarp of two cultivars with different flesh firmness at two ripening stages

Phytochemistry 72(10): 1251-1262

A proteomic analysis was conducted on peach fruit mesocarp in order to better elucidate the biochemical and physiological events which characterize the transition of fruit from the "unripe" to the "ripe" phase. The first goal of the present work was to set-up a protocol suitable for improving protein extraction from peach mesocarp. The use of freeze-dried powdered tissue, together with the addition of phenol prior to the extraction with an aqueous buffer, significantly increased the protein yield and the quality of 2-DE gels. The proteomic profiles of the mesocarp from peach fruit of a non-melting flesh (NMF; 'Oro A') and a melting flesh (MF; 'Bolero') cultivar, at "unripe" and "ripe" stages as defined by some parameters typical of ripening, were then analyzed. The comparative analysis of the 2-DE gels showed that in NMF and MF peaches the relative volumes of 53 protein spots significantly changed in relation to both the ripening stage ("unripe" versus "ripe") and/or the genetic background of the cultivar ('Oro A' versus 'Bolero'). Thirty out of the 53 differently abundant spots were identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The analysis revealed enzymes involved in primary metabolism (e.g. C-compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids) and in ethylene biosynthesis as well as proteins involved in secondary metabolism and responses to stress. Among these, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) appeared to be one of the proteins with the largest change in relative abundance during the fruit transition from the pre-climacteric ("unripe") to the climacteric ("ripe") phase. Other proteins, such as S-adenosylmethionine synthetase and β-cyanoalanine synthase involved in ethylene metabolism, were also identified. Moreover, the changes in the relative abundances of a sucrose synthase and an α-amylase suggested differences between the two cultivars in the carbohydrate import activity of ripe fruit. The different accumulation of a few typical ROS-scavenger enzymes suggested that a higher oxidative stress occurred in MF with respect to NMF fruit. This result, together with data concerning the levels of total proteins and free amino acids and those regarding proteins involved in the maintenance of tissue integrity, was consistent with the hypothesis that the last phase of ripening in MF fruit is characterized by the appearance of a senescence status. The present study appears to define well some of the biochemical and physiological events that characterize the ripening of peach and, at the same time, provides interesting indications that could be employed in future marker assisted selection (MAS) programmes aimed to obtain MF fruits with higher ability to preserve tissue functionality maintaining for a longer time their organoleptic characteristics.

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Accession: 054901619

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 21315381

DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.01.012

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