Phosphatase inhibitor-2 balances protein phosphatase 1 and aurora B kinase for chromosome segregation and cytokinesis in human retinal epithelial cells
Wang, W.; Stukenberg, P.T.; Brautigan, D.L.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 19(11): 4852-4862
ISSN/ISBN: 1939-4586 PMID: 18716057 DOI: 10.1091/mbc.e08-05-0460
Mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on IPL1 kinase, which genetically interacts with GLC8. The metazoan homologue of GLC8 is inhibitor-2 (I-2), but its function is not understood. We found endogenous and ectopic I-2 localized to the spindle, midzone, and midbody of mitotic human epithelial ARPE-19 cells. Knockdown of I-2 by RNA interference produced multinucleated cells, with supernumerary centrosomes, multipolar spindles and lagging chromosomes during anaphase. These defects did not involve changes in levels of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), and the multinuclear phenotype was rescued by overexpression of I-2. Appearance of multiple nuclei and supernumerary centrosomes required progression through the cell cycle and I-2 knockdown cells failed cytokinesis, as observed by time-lapse microscopy. Inhibition of Aurora B by hesperadin produced multinucleated cells and reduced H3S10 phosphorylation. I-2 knockdown enhanced this latter effect. Partial knockdown of PP1Calpha prevented multiple nuclei caused by either knockdown of I-2 or treatment with hesperadin. Expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein-I-2 or hemagglutinin-I-2 made cells resistant to hesperadin. We propose that I-2 acts to enhance Aurora B by inhibiting specific PP1 holoenzymes that dephosphorylate Aurora B substrates necessary for chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Conserved together throughout eukaryotic evolution, I-2, PP1 and Aurora B function interdependently during mitosis.