+ Site Statistics
References:
54,258,434
Abstracts:
29,560,870
PMIDs:
28,072,757
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Physical activity, by enhancing parasympathetic tone and activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, is a therapeutic strategy to restrain chronic inflammation and prevent many chronic diseases



Physical activity, by enhancing parasympathetic tone and activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, is a therapeutic strategy to restrain chronic inflammation and prevent many chronic diseases



Medical Hypotheses 80(5): 548-552



Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death in the world and chronic inflammation is a key contributor to many chronic diseases. Accordingly, interventions that reduce inflammation may be effective in treating multiple adverse chronic conditions. In this context, physical activity is documented to reduce systemic low-grade inflammation and is acknowledged as an anti-inflammatory intervention. Furthermore, physically active individuals are at a lower risk of developing chronic diseases. However the mechanisms mediating this anti-inflammatory phenotype and range of health benefits are unknown. We hypothesize that the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" (CAP) mediates the anti-inflammatory phenotype and range of health benefits associated with physical activity. The CAP is an endogenous, physiological mechanism by which acetylcholine from the vagus nerve, interacts with the innate immune system to modulate and restrain the inflammatory cascade. Importantly, higher levels of physical activity are associated with enhanced parasympathetic (vagal) tone and lower levels of C-reactive protein, a marker of low-grade inflammation. Accordingly, physical activity, by enhancing parasympathetic tone and activating the CAP, may be a therapeutic strategy to restrain chronic inflammation and prevent many chronic diseases.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 054993664

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 23395411

DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2013.01.014


Related references

Role of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in regulating host response and its interventional strategy for inflammatory diseases. Chinese Journal of Traumatology 12(6): 355-364, 2010

The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway: An innovative treatment strategy for neurological diseases. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 77: 358-368, 2017

The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway: an innovative treatment strategy for respiratory diseases and their comorbidities. Current Opinion in Pharmacology 40: 18-25, 2018

The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway: an innovative treatment strategy for respiratory diseases and their comorbidities. Current Opinion in Pharmacology 40: 18-25, 2018

FRI0016Inhibition of chronic pain by il4-10 synerkine is superior to IL-4 or IL-10 monotherapy: a novel strategy to restrain (inflammatory) pain in rheumatic diseases. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 72(Suppl 3): A373.3-A374, 2013

Anti inflammatory therapeutic activity of fenspiride in treatment of chronic broncho pulmonary diseases. Clinica Terapeutica 101(3): 275-295, 1982

Therapeutic value of anti cholinergic agents in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10(3-4): 201-208, 1976

Dexmedetomidine attenuates inflammatory reaction in the lung tissues of septic mice by activating cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. International Immunopharmacology 35: 210-216, 2017

Puerarin partly counteracts the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion via activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Neural Regeneration Research 8(34): 3203-3215, 2014

Selective Activation of Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Attenuates Polymicrobial Sepsis-Induced Inflammation via the Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway. Critical Care Medicine 45(10): E1075-E1082, 2017

Electro-acupuncture regulates the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Integrative Medicine 16(6): 418-426, 2018

The blockade of interleukin-6 receptor as a therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammatory diseases. Therapy 1(2): 267-275, 2004

Inhibition of the IL-6 signaling pathway: a strategy to combat chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews 24(2): 163-173, 2013

Inflammation and chronic heart failure: from biomarkers to novel anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies. Medicinal Chemistry ) 10(7): 682-699, 2015

Electroacupuncturing at Zusanli point (ST36) attenuates pro-inflammatory cytokine release and organ dysfunction by activating cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in rat with endotoxin challenge. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines 11(2): 469-474, 2015