+ Site Statistics
References:
54,258,434
Abstracts:
29,560,870
PMIDs:
28,072,757
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Physiological and serum biochemical changes associated with rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) poisoning in goats



Physiological and serum biochemical changes associated with rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) poisoning in goats



Toxicon 76: 247-254



Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) has been known to be toxic to livestock in the southwestern United States for many years; however, chemical composition of the plant as well as the dosage and duration required to cause toxicosis have not been completely described. Tremetol, the historical toxin, is actually a mixture of alcohols and ketones. Though not completely confirmed experimentally, the toxic compounds are believed to be benzofuran ketones that include tremetone, dehydrotremetone, 3-hydroxytremetone, and 3-oxyangeloyl-tremetone. The objectives of this study were to determine the dosage of benzofuran ketones and the duration of exposure to these compounds required to produce clinical signs of poisoning in Spanish goats and to document the pathophysiological changes associated with rayless goldenrod poisoning in goats. Goats dosed with rayless goldenrod containing 40 and 60 mg/kg BW of benzofuran ketones for 4 or 5 days, showed clinical signs of toxicosis that included trembles, and exercise intolerance seen as reluctance to perform on the treadmill, significantly increased resting and working heart rates and prolonged heart rate recovery following exercise. The affected goats also had significant serum biochemical changes that included increased concentrations of cardiac troponin I and increased activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase. Exercise intolerant animals also had extensive degeneration and necrosis within nearly all skeletal muscles. Some goats dosed with 10 and 20 mg/kg BW of benzofuran ketones began to show some signs of poisoning on the last day of the study. In conclusion, benzofuran ketones at doses at or above 40 mg/kg BW for longer than 4 or 5 days are toxic and produce disease similar to that described in clinical rayless goldenrod poisoning. Additionally, smaller benzofuran ketone doses (10 and 20 mg/kg BW) for longer durations also cause the disease. The physiologic findings indicated that though there may be some myocardial changes, the majority of the clinical disease in goats is due to skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. More work is needed to determine the toxicity and physiologic effects of individual benzofuran ketones and to develop a model that better predicts the risk of poisoning and methods to avoid poisoning by plants containing benzofuran ketones.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 055001309

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 24140917

DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.10.010


Related references

Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in goats. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22(4): 570-577, 2010

Transmammary transfer of toxicity to nursing kids from Isocoma pluriflora (rayless goldenrod) dosed to lactating goats. Toxicon 146: 61-68, 2018

Transmammary transfer of toxicity to nursing kids from Isocoma pluriflora (rayless goldenrod) dosed to lactating goats. Toxicon 146: 61-68, 2018

Evaluation of drying methods and toxicity of rayless goldenrod ( Isocoma pluriflora ) and white snakeroot ( Ageratina altissima ) in goats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60(19): 4849-4853, 2012

Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses. Toxicon 73: 88-95, 2014

Quantitative method for the measurement of three benzofuran ketones in rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) and white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57(12): 5639-5643, 2009

Vegetative response of goldenweeds isocoma spp and rayless goldenrod isocoma wrightii to simulated mechanical control. Journal of Range Management 35(6): 704-706, 1982

Control of rayless goldenrod isocoma wrightii with soil applied herbicides. Weed Science 31(2): 143-147, 1983

Anti feedants from rayless goldenrod isocoma wrightii and oil of pennyroyal mentha pulegium toxic effects for the fall armyworm spodoptera frugiperda. Journal of Economic Entomology 72(6): 812-815, 1979

Erratum--Isocoma pluriflora (Torr. & A. Gray) E. Greene. Phytologia 70(5): 381, 1991

Toxic Constituents of Rayless Goldenrod. Journal of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry 91: 1342-1351, 1962

Rayless goldenrod as a poisonous plant. U S DEPT AGRIC DEPT BULL 1391: 24 p, 1926

The chemical composition of rayless goldenrod. Amer Jour Pharm 111(3): 105-112, 1939

Rayless goldenrod toxicity in livestock. Rangelands 14(5): 284-285, 1992

The occurrence of 5a-androstane-3 , 16 . 17 -trlol in rayless goldenrod. Tetrahedron Letters 3/4: 217-221, 1964