+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Physiological functions of carnitine and carnitine transporters in the central nervous system

Physiological functions of carnitine and carnitine transporters in the central nervous system

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 28(3): 113-120

L-Carnitine is an essential co-factor in the metabolism of lipids and consequently in the production of cellular energy. This molecule has important physiological roles, including its involvement in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids by facilitating the transport of long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial inner membrane as acylcarnitine esters. In the brain, L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine have important roles in cerebral bioenergetics and in neuroprotection through a variety of mechanisms including their antioxidant properties and in the modulation and promotion of synaptic neurotransmission, most notably cholinergic neurotransmission. Acetyl-L-carnitine was successfully applied as pharmacological agents for treatment of chronic degenerative diseases of the senile brain and for slowing down the progression of mental deterioration in Alzheimer's disease, and they may involve both the cholinergic neuronal transmission activity of acetyl-L-carnitine and its ability to enhance neuronal metabolism in mitochondria. Astrocytes are able to produce large amounts of ketone bodies, which are thought to supply adjacent neurons with easily transferable substrates for generation of energy. Thus, the L-carnitine uptake mechanism becomes the rate-limiting step for astrocyte ketogenesis. Several carnitine transporters have been known to be present in peripheral tissues. In this review, the functional expression and physiological role of carnitine transporters in central nervous system is further discussed.

(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 055001879

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 18646596

Related references

A pharmacological profile of the effects of carnitine and acetyl carnitine on the central nervous system. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 3(4): 295-306, 1983

Up-regulation of carnitine transporters helps maintain tissue carnitine levels in carnitine deficiency induced by pivalic acid. Pharmaceutical Research 18(4): 439-445, 2001

Physiological effects of acetyl-levo-carnitine in the central nervous system. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 10(1-2): 109-114, 1990

Effects of dietary L-carnitine and protein level on plasma carnitine, energy and carnitine balance, and carnitine biosynthesis of 20 kg pigs. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 13(11): 1568-1575, 2000

Comparison of pharmacokinetics of L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine after single oral administration of L-carnitine in healthy volunteers. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Medecine Clinique et Experimentale 32(1): E13-E19, 2009

The role of carnitine, the carnitine acyltransferases and the carnitine-exchange system. Biochemical Society Transactions 6(1): 72-76, 1978

Carnitine transport by organic cation transporters and systemic carnitine deficiency. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 73(4): 287-297, 2001

Abnormal localization of OCTN2 carnitine transporters in primary carnitine deficiency. American Journal of Human Genetics 73(5): 446, November, 2003

Carnitine and the central nervous system--new aspects. Harefuah 132(2): 130-132, 1997

Regulation of fatty acid utilization in heart role of the carnitine acetyl coenzyme a transferase and carnitine acetyl carnitine translocase system. Journal of Molecular & Cellular Cardiology 14(7): 413-418, 1982

Regulation of fatty acid utilization in heart. Role of the carnitine-acetyl-CoA transferase and carnitine-acetyl carnitine translocase system. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 14(7): 413-417, 1982

Carnitine and derivatives in the central nervous system of chick embryo. International Journal of Biochemistry 26(5): 711-720, 1994

The mitochondriotropic effects of L-carnitine and its esters in the central nervous system. Current Medicinal Chemistry - Central Nervous System Agents 3(4): 275-282, December, 2003

Central nervous system disorders and possible brain type carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. Brain & Development. 16(2): 139-145, 1994