+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Physiological functions of glucose-inhibited neurones

Physiological functions of glucose-inhibited neurones

Acta Physiologica 195(1): 71-78

Glucose-inhibited neurones are an integral part of neurocircuits regulating cognitive arousal, body weight and vital adaptive behaviours. Their firing is directly suppressed by extracellular glucose through poorly understood signalling cascades culminating in opening of post-synaptic K(+) or possibly Cl(-) channels. In mammalian brains, two groups of glucose-inhibited neurones are best understood at present: neurones of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) that express peptide transmitters NPY and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neurones of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) that express peptide transmitters orexins/hypocretins. The activity of ARC NPY/AgRP neurones promotes food intake and suppresses energy expenditure, and their destruction causes a severe reduction in food intake and body weight. The physiological actions of ARC NPY/AgRP cells are mediated by projections to numerous hypothalamic areas, as well as extrahypothalamic sites such as the thalamus and ventral tegmental area. Orexin/hypocretin neurones of the LH are critical for normal wakefulness, energy expenditure and reward-seeking, and their destruction causes narcolepsy. Orexin actions are mediated by highly widespread central projections to virtually all brain areas except the cerebellum, including monosynaptic innervation of the cerebral cortex and autonomic pre-ganglionic neurones. There, orexins act on two specific G-protein-coupled receptors generally linked to neuronal excitation. In addition to sensing physiological changes in sugar levels, the firing of both NPY/AgRP and orexin neurones is inhibited by the 'satiety' hormone leptin and stimulated by the 'hunger' hormone ghrelin. Glucose-inhibited neurones are thus well placed to coordinate diverse brain states and behaviours based on energy levels.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 055001882

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 18983451

DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2008.01922.x

Related references

Are sympathetic preganglionic neurones directly inhibited by GABAergic neurones in the central region of the rat spinal cord?. Journal of Physiology (Cambridge) 544P: 27P, November, 2002

The effects of variations in quantity of protein intake and supplementation of amino acid in a diet on physiological functions. 3. The effects of supplemented lysine or tryptophan in standard regimen on adrenocortical functions and other physiological functions. Shikoku Acta med, 24: 501-512, 1968

The effects of variations in quantity of protein intake and supplementation of amino acid in a diet on physiological functions. 2. The effects of supplemented lysine and tryptophan based on ACTH pattern in low protein regimen on adrenocortical functions and other physiological functions. Shikoku Acta med, 24: 492-500, 1968

Some properties and possible physiological functions of phosphotransferase activities of microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 166(2): 699-718, 1969

Work at sea: a study of sleep, and of circadian rhythms in physiological and psychological functions, in watchkeepers on merchant vessels. III. Rhythms in physiological functions. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 60(6): 395-403, 1988

Ca2+-inhibited non-inactivating K+ channels in cultured rat hippocampal pyramidal neurones. Journal Of Physiology (cambridge). 510(1): 71-91, Y 1, 1998

Predictive models of glucose control: roles for glucose-sensing neurones. Acta Physiologica 213(1): 7-18, 2015

Glucokinase is the likely mediator of glucosensing in both glucose-excited and glucose-inhibited central neurons. Diabetes 51(7): 2056-2065, 2002

Rabbit jejunal glucose flux is inhibited by undigested glucose polymers. Gastroenterology 106(4 SUPPL ): A609, 1994

Effect of noise on physiological functions in fowl. III. Effects of first and repetitive acoustic stimulation on plasma levels of glucose and free fatty acids in broilers of different age groups. Archiv fur Experimentelle Veterinarmedizin 30(5): 651-660, 1976

Recurrent hypoglycemia reduces the glucose sensitivity of glucose-inhibited neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus nucleus. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 291(5): R1283-7, 2006

Fasting enhances the response of arcuate neuropeptide Y-glucose-inhibited neurons to decreased extracellular glucose. American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology 296(4): C746-C756, 2009

Capsaicin-induced currents in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurones are inhibited by cooling. Pfluegers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 441(6 Supplement): R159, 2001

Oxytocin neurones in the supraoptic nucleus are inhibited by endogenous opioids in late pregnant rats. Gene Therapy 1(SUPPL 1): S84, 1994