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Plasma levels and systemic safety of 0.1% unpreserved timolol maleate gel, 0.5% timolol aqueous solution and 0.5% timolol maleate gel



Plasma levels and systemic safety of 0.1% unpreserved timolol maleate gel, 0.5% timolol aqueous solution and 0.5% timolol maleate gel



Journal Francais d'Ophtalmologie 35(1): 9-16



To compare systemic absorption of three formulations of timolol eye drops: 0.1% timolol maleate gel, 0.5% timolol aqueous solution, and 0.5% timolol maleate gel. This was a double cross-over phase I study. Cross-over 1: two weeks of 0.1% timolol gel once daily, followed by a 3-week wash-out period and then two weeks of 0.5% timolol aqueous solution twice a day (group 1) or the reverse (group 2). Cross-over 2: two weeks of 0.1% timolol gel once daily, followed by a 3-week wash-out period, and then two weeks of 0.5% timolol gel once daily (group 3) or the reverse (group 4). Subjects underwent tonometry, blood sampling, and heart rate and blood pressure assessments (during bicycle exercise and head-up tilt tests) before and after instillation at the beginning and end of each treatment period. Forty-three healthy volunteers were randomized: 11 subjects in groups 1, 2, and 3, and 10 subjects in group 4. Areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values after administration of timolol 0.5% formulations were 15- to 38-fold higher than those seen after administration of timolol 0.1% gel. Maximum timolol concentrations after instillation of 0.1% gel are reduced by almost 90% compared to concentrations obtained after both 0.5% aqueous solution and 0.5% gel instillation. The AUC between 0 and 12 h post-administration were also reduced by up to 93 to 98%. After treatment with a timolol 0.1% gel formulation, systemic concentrations found were considerably lower than after administration of timolol 0.5% gel or in aqueous solution.

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Accession: 055020540

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PMID: 21992993

DOI: 10.1016/j.jfo.2011.03.012


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