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Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 with improved proof-reading enhances homology-directed repair



Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 with improved proof-reading enhances homology-directed repair



Nucleic Acids Research 46(9): 4677-4688



Genome editing using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) predominantly induces non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), which generates random insertions or deletions, whereas homology-directed repair (HDR), which generates precise recombination products, is useful for wider applications. However, the factors that determine the ratio of HDR to NHEJ products after CRISPR/Cas9 editing remain unclear, and methods by which the proportion of HDR products can be increased have not yet been fully established. We systematically analyzed the HDR and NHEJ products after genome editing using various modified guide RNAs (gRNAs) and Cas9 variants with an enhanced conformational checkpoint to improve the fidelity at endogenous gene loci in HEK293T cells and HeLa cells. We found that these modified gRNAs and Cas9 variants were able to enhance HDR in both single-nucleotide substitutions and a multi-kb DNA fragment insertion. Our results suggest that the original CRISPR/Cas9 system from the bacterial immune system is not necessarily the best option for the induction of HDR in genome editing and indicate that the modulation of the kinetics of conformational checkpoints of Cas9 can optimize the HDR/NHEJ ratio.

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Accession: 055116016

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PMID: 29672770

DOI: 10.1093/nar/gky264


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