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Preliminary experience with epsilon aminocaproic acid for treatment of intractable upper tract hematuria in children with hematological disorders

Preliminary experience with epsilon aminocaproic acid for treatment of intractable upper tract hematuria in children with hematological disorders

Journal of Urology 184(3): 1152-1157

Gross, intractable hematuria is rare in children. Although the role of epsilon aminocaproic acid in the management of refractory hematuria is well established in the adult population, few data exist about its use in children for this indication. We present our initial experience with epsilon aminocaproic acid for the treatment of intractable hematuria after more conservative measures failed, and propose an algorithm for administration of epsilon aminocaproic acid in children. We reviewed the charts of all patients treated with epsilon aminocaproic acid for intractable gross hematuria at our institution during a period of 36 months. All patients underwent hematological evaluation and any underlying bleeding dyscrasias were addressed. All patients also underwent renal and bladder ultrasound, retrograde pyelogram and ureteroscopy. Demographic information, medical and surgical histories, and epsilon aminocaproic acid dosing and outcomes were recorded. Three boys and 1 girl 11 to 17 years old were treated with epsilon aminocaproic acid. Three patients had sickle trait (1 with nutcracker phenomenon) and 1 had hemophilia A. Three patients required packed red blood cell transfusions to maintain hematocrit. Three renal angiograms were performed, all of which were nondiagnostic. Duration of hematuria ranged from 1 to 52 weeks before administration of epsilon aminocaproic acid. Endoscopic evaluation demonstrated hematuria localized to 1 ureteral orifice in all 4 patients. All patients received 100 mg/kg epsilon aminocaproic acid orally every 6 hours, which uniformly led to cessation of hematuria. Epsilon aminocaproic acid is useful for the management of gross refractory hematuria when more conservative measures fail. Because of its potential side effects, it should be used cautiously.

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Accession: 055122214

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PMID: 20650477

DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2010.05.020

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