Presence of intratumoral neutrophils is an independent prognostic factor in localized renal cell carcinoma

Jensen, H.K.; Donskov, F.; Marcussen, N.; Nordsmark, M.; Lundbeck, F.; von der Maase, H.

Journal of Clinical Oncology Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 27(28): 4709-4717

2009


ISSN/ISBN: 1527-7755
PMID: 19720929
DOI: 10.1200/jco.2008.18.9498
Accession: 055141519

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Abstract
We have previously demonstrated a significant negative impact of intratumoral neutrophils in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. This study assessed intratumoral neutrophils in localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The study comprised 121 consecutive patients who had a nephrectomy for localized RCC. Biomarkers (intratumoral CD8+, CD57+ immune cells, CD66b+ neutrophils, and carbonic anhydrase IX [CA IX]) were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and the relationship with clinical and histopathologic features and patient outcome was evaluated. The intratumoral neutrophils ranged from zero to 289 cells/mm(2) tumor tissue. The presence of intratumoral neutrophils was statistically significantly associated with increasing tumor size, low hemoglobin, high creatinine, and CA IX < or = 85%. In multivariate analysis, the presence of intratumoral neutrophils (hazard ratio [HR], 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.4; P < .0001), pT stage T3b/T4 (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.6; P = .007), and low hemoglobin (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.1; P = .03) were independent prognostic factors significantly associated with short recurrence-free survival. The presence of intratumoral neutrophils was also an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival (HR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.9 to 6.4; P < .0001) and overall survival (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.9 to 5.0; P < .0001). Applying the prognostic value of intratumoral neutrophils to the Leibovich low-/intermediate-risk group (n = 78) showed a 5-year recurrence-free survival of 53% (95% CI, 34.6% to 71.8%; presence of intratumoral neutrophils) versus 87% (95% CI, 77.8% to 96.8%; absence of intratumoral neutrophils). The estimated concordance index was 0.74 using the Leibovich risk score and 0.80 when intratumoral neutrophils were added. The presence of intratumoral neutrophils is a new, strong, independent prognostic factor for short recurrence-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival in localized clear cell RCC.