Proteome analysis of cytoplasmatic and plastidic β-carotene lipid droplets in Dunaliella bardawil
Davidi, L.; Levin, Y.; Ben-Dor, S.; Pick, U.
Plant Physiology 167(1): 60-79
ISSN/ISBN: 1532-2548 PMID: 25404729 DOI: 10.1104/pp.114.248450
The halotolerant green alga Dunaliella bardawil is unique in that it accumulates under stress two types of lipid droplets: cytoplasmatic lipid droplets (CLD) and β-carotene-rich (βC) plastoglobuli. Recently, we isolated and analyzed the lipid and pigment compositions of these lipid droplets. Here, we describe their proteome analysis. A contamination filter and an enrichment filter were utilized to define core proteins. A proteome database of Dunaliella salina/D. bardawil was constructed to aid the identification of lipid droplet proteins. A total of 124 and 42 core proteins were identified in βC-plastoglobuli and CLD, respectively, with only eight common proteins. Dunaliella spp. CLD resemble cytoplasmic droplets from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and contain major lipid droplet-associated protein and enzymes involved in lipid and sterol metabolism. The βC-plastoglobuli proteome resembles the C. reinhardtii eyespot and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plastoglobule proteomes and contains carotene-globule-associated protein, plastid-lipid-associated protein-fibrillins, SOUL heme-binding proteins, phytyl ester synthases, β-carotene biosynthesis enzymes, and proteins involved in membrane remodeling/lipid droplet biogenesis: VESICLE-INDUCING PLASTID PROTEIN1, synaptotagmin, and the eyespot assembly proteins EYE3 and SOUL3. Based on these and previous results, we propose models for the biogenesis of βC-plastoglobuli and the biosynthesis of β-carotene within βC-plastoglobuli and hypothesize that βC-plastoglobuli evolved from eyespot lipid droplets.