+ Site Statistics
References:
54,258,434
Abstracts:
29,560,870
PMIDs:
28,072,757
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 22q11 deletion syndrome



Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 22q11 deletion syndrome



Plos One 6(6): E21685



People with velo-cardio-facial syndrome or 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have behavioral, cognitive and psychiatric problems. Approximately 30% of affected individuals develop schizophrenia-like psychosis. Glutamate dysfunction is thought to play a crucial role in schizophrenia. However, it is unknown if and how the glutamate system is altered in 22q11DS. People with 22q11DS are vulnerable for haploinsufficiency of PRODH, a gene that codes for an enzyme converting proline into glutamate. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that glutamatergic abnormalities may be present in 22q11DS. We employed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to quantify glutamate and other neurometabolites in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and hippocampus of 22 adults with 22q11DS (22q11DS SCZ+) and without (22q11DS SCZ-) schizophrenia and 23 age-matched healthy controls. Also, plasma proline levels were determined in the 22q11DS group. We found significantly increased concentrations of glutamate and myo-inositol in the hippocampal region of 22q11DS SCZ+ compared to 22q11DS SCZ-. There were no significant differences in levels of plasma proline between 22q11DS SCZ+ and 22q11DS SCZ-. There was no relationship between plasma proline and cerebral glutamate in 22q11DS. This is the first in vivo(1)H-MRS study in 22q11DS. Our results suggest vulnerability of the hippocampus in the psychopathology of 22q11DS SCZ+. Altered hippocampal glutamate and myo-inositol metabolism may partially explain the psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairments seen in this group of patients.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 055260132

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 21738766

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021685


Related references

Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (velocardiofacial syndrome). Schizophrenia Research 115(2-3): 173-181, 2010

Altered development of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: an in vivo proton spectroscopy study. Biological Psychiatry 72(8): 684-691, 2013

In vitro proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver tissue informs in vivo hepatic proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies. Hepatology 48(3): 1016; Author Reply 1016-7, 2008

Sturge-Weber syndrome: diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings. Acta Radiologica 46(4): 407-410, 2005

Maturation of limbic regions in Asperger syndrome: a preliminary study using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Psychiatry Research 184(2): 77-85, 2011

Influence of X chromosome and hormones on human brain development: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of Turner syndrome. Biological Psychiatry 59(3): 273-283, 2005

Impaired activation of face processing networks revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Biological Psychiatry 63(1): 49-57, 2007

Shyness discriminates between children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Williams syndrome and predicts emergence of psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 6(1): 3, 2014

Complex conotruncal heart defect, severe bleeding disorder and 22q11 deletion: a new case of Bernard-Soulier syndrome and of 22q11 deletion syndrome?. Italian Heart Journal 2(6): 475-477, 2001

Psychiatric disorders from childhood to adulthood in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: results from the International Consortium on Brain and Behavior in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry 171(6): 627-639, 2014

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in Kennedy syndrome. Archives of Neurology 56(12): 1465-1471, 1999

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the narcoleptic syndrome. Neurology 46(2 SUPPL ): A174, 1996

In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in adult Down's syndrome. Biological Psychiatry 32(7): 625-627, 1992

Cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in Rett syndrome. Neuropediatrics 26(2): 126-127, 1995

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of linear nevus sebaceus syndrome. Pediatric Neurology 18(2): 176-180, 1998