+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Revised recommendations for iron fortification of wheat flour and an evaluation of the expected impact of current national wheat flour fortification programs

Revised recommendations for iron fortification of wheat flour and an evaluation of the expected impact of current national wheat flour fortification programs

Food and Nutrition Bulletin 31(1 Suppl.): S7-21

Iron fortification of wheat flour is widely used as a strategy to combat iron deficiency. To review recent efficacy studies and update the guidelines for the iron fortification of wheat flour. Efficacy studies with a variety of iron-fortified foods were reviewed to determine the minimum daily amounts of additional iron that have been shown to meaningfully improve iron status in children, adolescents, and women of reproductive age. Recommendations were computed by determining the fortification levels needed to provide these additional quantities of iron each day in three different wheat flour consumption patterns. Current wheat flour iron fortification programs in 78 countries were evaluated. When average daily consumption of low-extraction (< or = 0.8% ash) wheat flour is 150 to 300 g, it is recommended to add 20 ppm iron as NaFeEDTA, or 30 ppm as dried ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. If sensory changes or cost limits the use of these compounds, electrolytic iron at 60 ppm is the second choice. Corresponding fortification levels were calculated for wheat flour intakes of < 150 g/day and > 300 g/day. Electrolytic iron is not recommended for flour intakes of < 150 g/day. Encapsulated ferrous sulfate or fumarate can be added at the same concentrations as the non-encapsulated compounds. For high-extraction wheat flour (> 0.8% ash), NaFeEDTA is the only iron compound recommended. Only nine national programs (Argentina, Chile, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkmenistan, and Uruguay) were judged likely to have a significant positive impact on iron status if coverage is optimized. Most countries use non-recommended, low-bioavailability, atomized, reduced or hydrogen-reduced iron powders. Most current iron fortification programs are likely to be ineffective. Legislation needs updating in many countries so that flour is fortified with adequate levels of the recommended iron compounds.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 055564358

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 20629349

DOI: 10.1177/15648265100311s102

Related references

The potential of the iron concentrated germinated wheat in wheat flour fortification: an alternative to the conventional expensive iron fortification. Journal of Food Science and Technology 56(4): 2038-2048, 2019

Vitamin A fortification of wheat flour: considerations and current recommendations. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 31(1 Suppl.): S47-S61, 2010

A national program for the fortification of wheat flour with iron, Egypt. 1985

Impact of Flour Fortification on Common Asian Wheat Flour-Based Foods. Cereal Foods World 58(5): 238-245, 2013

Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of wheat flour and salt fortification programs in five Central Asian countries and Mongolia, 2002-2007. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 29(4): 255-265, 2009

Iron fortification of wheat flour: bioavailability studies. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 23(3 Suppl.): 199-202, 2002

Note on levels of nutrients to add under expanded wheat flour fortification/enrichment programs. Cereal Chemistry 57(1): 70-72, 1980

Iron and folic acid fortification of wheat flour--the Cuernavaca consensus. Cereal foods world 50(2): 88-89, 2005

Fortification of wheat flour with iron: development of a quality assurance system. Ceylon Journal of Medical Science 42(2): 43-53, 1999

Preparation of full fat soy flour and its use in fortification of wheat flour. Journal of Food Science and Technology, India 24(5): 259-260, 1987

Low bioavailability of carbonyl iron in man: studies on iron fortification of wheat flour. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43(1): 59-67, 1986

Fortification of whole wheat flour with different iron compounds: effect on quality parameters and stability. Journal of Food Science and Technology 55(9): 3575-3583, 2018

Brazilian milling industry views on law requiring iron fortification of wheat flour. Nutrire: 3, 1-15, 2008

Trends in wheat-flour fortification with folic acid and iron--worldwide, 2004 and 2007. Mmwr. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57(1): 8-10, 2008

External mill monitoring of wheat flour fortification programs: an approach for program managers using experiences from Jordan. Nutrients 5(11): 4741-4759, 2014