EurekaMag.com logo
+ Site Statistics
References:
53,869,633
Abstracts:
29,686,251
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
EurekaMag Most Shared ContentMost Shared
EurekaMag PDF Full Text ContentPDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full TextRequest PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedInFollow on LinkedIn

+ Translate

Revision of Dietary Reference Intakes for energy in preschool-age children



Revision of Dietary Reference Intakes for energy in preschool-age children



American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100(1): 161-167



Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for energy aim to balance energy expenditure at a level of physical activity consistent with health and support adequate growth in children. DRIs were derived from total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; however, the database was limited in the 3-5-y-old range. We reexamined the DRI for energy for preschool-age children. Ninety-seven healthy, normal-weight, preschool-age children (mean ± SD age: 4.5 ± 0.9 y) completed a 7-d DLW protocol while wearing accelerometer and heart rate-monitoring devices. Mean TEE and physical activity level (PAL) averaged 1159 ± 171 kcal/d and 1.34 ± 0.14, respectively. TEE predicted by DRI equations agreed with observed TEE (+34 kcal/d or 3%) if the sedentary PAL category was assumed but was overestimated by using the low active (+219 kcal/d or 19%), active (398 kcal/d or 34%), and very active (593 kcal/d or 51%) PAL categories. PAL categories were redefined on the basis of the narrower PAL range observed in preschoolers (range: 1.05-1.70) compared with older children and adults (range: 1.0-2.5). Sex-specific nonlinear regression models were newly developed to predict TEE from age, weight, height, and new PAL categories. The mean absolute error of TEE prediction equations was 0.00 ± 35 kcal/d or 0.1 ± 3%. Ancillary measures, such as total accelerometer counts and total daily steps, that were significantly correlated (P = 0.01-0.05) with TEE (r = 0.26-0.38), TEE per kilogram (r = 0.31-0.41), and PAL (r = 0.36-0.48) may assist in the classification of preschoolers into PAL categories. Current DRIs for energy overestimate energy requirements of preschool-age children because of the erroneous classification of children into PAL categories. New TEE prediction equations that are based on DLW and appropriate PAL categories are recommended for preschool-age children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as H12067.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 055564663

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 24808489

DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.113.081703



Related references

Zinc intake of US preschool children exceeds new dietary reference intakes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78(5): 1011-1017, 2003

Validation of Dietary Reference Intakes for predicting energy requirements in elementary school-age children. Nutrition Research and Practice 12(4): 336-341, 2018

Recommended dietary allowances for Japanese--6th revision--dietary reference intakes. Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine 60 Suppl 10: 761-769, 2002

Effect of energy density and the fat level of cow's milk formula on subsequent food and energy intakes in preschool children. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion 46(3): 210-215, 1996

Dietary intakes and growth of seventh day adventist preschool children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31(4): 720, 1978

Dietary vitamin A intakes of preschool-age children in South India. Journal of Nutrition 129(11): 2021-2027, 1999

Dietary intakes of preschool children in la paz el salvador central america. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion 30(1): 49-57, 1980

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDIs), Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs), and Population Reference Intakes (PRIs) are not "recommended intakes". Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 25(2): 236-241, 1997

Energy and nutrient intakes of preschool indian children. Canadian Federation of Biological Societies Proceedings 19:, 1976

Food intakes by preschool children in Flanders compared with dietary guidelines. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 5(4): 243-257, 2009

Serum lipid profiles and dietary fat intakes of Canadian preschool children. Journal of the Canadian Dietetic Associationer 52(2): 97-101, 1991

Nutrient intakes in US Naval Academy Midshipmen Comparisons to dietary reference intakes and to national intakes in comparable age groups. FASEB Journal 15(5): A982, March 8, 2001

Picky eating in preschool children: Associations with dietary fibre intakes and stool hardness. Appetite 100: 263-271, 2016

Dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of vitamin C, selenium, and carotenoids of a group of preschool children. Nutrition research 26(1): 23-26, 2006

Dietary intakes and nutrient status of vegetarian preschool children from a British national survey. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 13(3): 149-162, 2000