+ Site Statistics
References:
54,258,434
Abstracts:
29,560,870
PMIDs:
28,072,757
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Risk factors and genetics in common comitant strabismus: a systematic review of the literature



Risk factors and genetics in common comitant strabismus: a systematic review of the literature



JAMA Ophthalmology 131(9): 1179-1186



Understanding the development of common strabismus is important in locating "at-risk" populations and implementing optimal treatment. This systematic review will bring together reported genetic and environmental risk factors for common strabismus to reveal relationships between risk factors and guide future research. To identify known environmental and genetic risk factors for comitant strabismus reported in the literature. A systematic literature search was performed in Medline, Embase, BioSciences Information Service Previews, Web of Science, and the OMIM database during a 2-week period in July 2011 (including all available years) using the following key words: gene, genetic environmental factor, inheritance, risk factor, esotropia, exotropia, strabismus, squint, convergent strabismus, and divergent strabismus. No language restrictions were placed on the search. Exclusion criteria consisted of associated syndromes, strabismus not the primary outcome, poor study design or quality, and logarithm of the odds score less than 3. A study quality and extraction tool was used. Analysis was performed descriptively because of the variant characteristics of the study designs. Risk factor, twin, pedigree, and genetic studies. Forty-one articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria set out by the study, which highlighted 4 subcategories: risk factor, twin, pedigree, and genetic studies. Significant risk factors for strabismus reported by the studies included low birth weight, cicatricial retinopathy of prematurity, prematurity, smoking throughout pregnancy, anisometropia, hyperopia, and inheritance. Inheritance was further supported by twin and pedigree studies, which revealed the complexity of the inheritance pattern. At present the STBMS1 locus is the only gene location that has been supported; however, others have been reported. Certain subgroups within the population are at higher risk of developing comitant strabismus and should be identified and monitored to allow for earlier detection. It is evident that a strong hereditary link is present particularly in intermittent and accommodative forms; however, further research is required to identify possible links between subtypes of strabismus. Further genetic research could also help to locate additional causative genes to aid the understanding of strabismus development.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 055579107

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 23846622

DOI: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.4001


Related references

Heredity versus abnormalities in pregnancy and delivery as risk factors for different types of comitant strabismus. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 38(2): 78-82, 2001

An update on the genetics of comitant strabismus. Seminars in Ophthalmology 28(5-6): 438-441, 2014

Unique and Varied Contributions of Traditional CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Literature Review of CAD Risk Factors in China. Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology 7(): 59-86, 2013

A study of consanguineous marriage as a risk factor for developing comitant strabismus. Journal of Community Genetics 6(2): 177-180, 2015

Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy: a systematic review of the literature. British Journal of Sports Medicine 45(5): 446-452, 2011

A systematic literature review of risk factors for stroke in China. Cardiology in Review 21(2): 77-93, 2013

Risk factors for gout and prevention: a systematic review of the literature. Current Opinion in Rheumatology 23(2): 192-202, 2011

Clinical features of comitant strabismus related to family history of strabismus or abnormalities in pregnancy and delivery. Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology 47(2): 208-213, 2003

Bruxism--confirmed and potential risk factors. A systematic review of the literature. Schweizer Monatsschrift für Zahnmedizin 118(2): 100-107, 2008

Risk factors for stillbirth in developing countries: a systematic review of the literature. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 34(7 Suppl): S11-S21, 2007

Risk factors for abdominal aortic aneurysm A systematic review of the literature. JGIM 13(SUPPL 1): 19, April, 1998

Systematic literature review of the risk factors, comorbidities, and consequences of hypogonadism in men. Andrology 2(6): 819-834, 2015

Falls: incidence and risk factors after stroke. A systematic literature review. Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie 40(4): 156-167, 2010

A systematic literature review of the risk factors associated with children entering public care. Child: Care, Health and Development 39(5): 628-642, 2014

Pretrauma risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review 33(6): 728-744, 2014