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Risk factors associated with deforming oral habits in children aged 5 to 11: a case-control study



Risk factors associated with deforming oral habits in children aged 5 to 11: a case-control study



Medwave 14(2): E5927



Dental and maxillofacial anomalies have multiple and complex causes. Most frequent among these are poor oral habits. A large number of children present with oral malocclusions, most of which are caused by deforming oral habits. It is important to learn about risk factors for this condition in order to institute preventive measures, early detection and treatment, and identification of low- and high-risk groups. To identify risk factors associated with deforming oral habits, which, if maintained over time, are responsible for occlusion defects, speech disorders, and can affect physical and emotional child development. A case-control study of children presenting with deforming oral habits in the municipality of Manzanillo in Granma province was conducted between January and August 2013. 540 children aged 5 to 11 were included of which 180 had deforming oral habits and were asked to fill out a survey to identify specific type of habits leading to malocclusion. The case group was composed of children with deforming habits, and the remaining 360 children without poor oral habits were the control group. Each case was randomly matched to two control cases. The children mothers were also surveyed to gather supplemental information. Children with deforming oral habits were mostly female. At age 10, onychophagia was the predominant oral deforming habit. Risk factors detected for these habits were sociobiological maternal and child variables such as low and high birth weight, maternal breastfeeding inexperience, and discord in the family. The study identified likely risk factors associated with deforming oral habits. These are discord in the family, birth weight, and lack of breastfeeding experience. Las causas de las anomalías dentomaxilofaciales son múltiples y complejas. Los hábitos bucales incorrectos, deletéreos o deformantes son una de las más frecuentes. Debido a la cantidad de niños que acuden a consulta con maloclusiones, generadas en su mayoría por los hábitos bucales deformantes, se vuelve necesario el conocer los factores de riesgo para así reducirlos al máximo y evitar sus consecuencias. Este conocimiento puede ser muy útil para identificar los grupos de bajo y alto riesgo, así como para la prevención secundaria, cuando se cuenta con los medios de detección precoz y tratamiento. Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a hábitos bucales deformantes, los que producen alteraciones de la oclusión, trastornos en el lenguaje y en el desarrollo físico y emocional del niño, si es que se mantienen por largos períodos de tiempo. Se realizó un estudio de tipo caso control de niños afectados por hábitos bucales deformantes del municipio de Manzanillo, provincia Granma, en el periodo comprendido entre enero y agosto de 2013. Del total de niños entre 5 y 11 años del área se seleccionaron 540 menores, de ellos 180 con hábitos bucales deformantes que se examinaron en consulta a los que se les aplicó una encuesta para determinar el tipo de hábitos que practicaban. Los niños con hábitos deformantes constituyeron los casos y los otros 360 sin hábitos bucales deformantes constituyeron los controles. Se tomó 1 caso por cada 2 controles estudiados a partir de un muestreo aleatorio. A todas las madres de estos niños se les realizó una encuesta para obtener las demás variables necesarias para el estudio. Hubo predominio de niños con hábitos bucales deformantes en el sexo femenino. En la edad de 10 años predominó como hábito deformante la onicofagia. Se consideran condiciones de riesgo en la presencia de hábitos bucales deformantes variables socio biológicas de las madres y los niños como el bajo y sobre peso del niño al nacer, la no experiencia de lactancia materna exclusiva y la no armonía familiar. Se identificaron como factores de riesgo asociados a los hábitos bucales deformantes la armonía familiar, el peso del niño al nacer y la experiencia de lactancia materna.

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Accession: 055579611

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PMID: 25198198


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