Role of herpes simplex virus ICP27 in the degradation of mRNA by virion host shutoff RNase
Taddeo, B.; Zhang, W.; Roizman, B.
Journal of Virology 84(19): 10182-10190
ISSN/ISBN: 1098-5514 PMID: 20631134 DOI: 10.1128/jvi.00975-10
The virion host shutoff (VHS) RNase tegument protein released into cells by infecting virus has two effects. Preexisting stable mRNAs (e.g., GAPDH [glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase]) are rapidly degraded. Stress response RNAs containing AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) are deadenylated and cleaved, but the cleavage products persist for hours, in contrast to the short half-lives of ARE-containing mRNAs in uninfected cells. At late times, the VHS RNase is neutralized by the viral structural proteins VP16 and VP22. A recent study (J. A. Corcoran, W. L. Hsu, and J. R. Smiley, J. Virol. 80:9720-9729, 2006) reported that, at relatively late times after infection, ARE RNAs are rapidly degraded in cells infected with DeltaICP27 mutant virus and concluded that ICP27 "stabilizes" ARE mRNAs. We report the following. (i) The rates of degradation of ARE mRNA at early times (3 h) after infection with the wild type or the DeltaICP27 mutant virus are virtually identical, and hence ICP27 plays no role in this process. (ii) In noncomplementing cells, VHS RNase or VP22 is not synthesized. Therefore, the only VHS that is active is brought into cells by the DeltaICP27 mutant. (ii) The VHS RNase brought into the cells by the DeltaICP27 virus is reduced in potency relative to that of wild-type virus. Hence the rapid degradation of ARE mRNAs noted in DeltaICP27 mutant-infected cells at late times is similar to that taking place in mock-infected or in DeltaVHS RNase mutant-virus-infected cells and does not by itself support the hypothesis that ICP27 stabilizes ARE mRNAs. (iii) Concurrently, we present the first evidence that VHS RNase interacts with ICP27 most likely when bound to cap- and poly(A)-binding proteins, respectively.