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Role of the β1 integrin molecule in T-cell activation and migration



Role of the β1 integrin molecule in T-cell activation and migration



Modern Rheumatology 10(1): 8-15



Abstract β1 integrins play crucial roles in a variety of cell processes such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation of lymphocytes. To understand the molecular mechanisms of these various biological effects, it is particularly important to analyze cell signaling through the β1 integrins. Our previous study showed that PLC-γ, pp125FAK (focal adhesion kinase), pp105, paxillin, p59fyn, p56lck, and ERK1/2 are phosphorylated in their tyrosine residues upon engagement of β1 integrins. We identified pp105 as Cas (Crk-associated substrate)-related protein and successfully cloned its cDNA. pp105 is a Cas homologue predominantly expressed in the cells of lymphoid lineage, which led us to designate it Cas-L. Like p130Cas, Cas-L contains a single SH3 domain and multiple SH2-binding sites (YXXP motif), which are suggested to bind SH2 domains of Crk, Nck, and SHPTP2. Subsequent studies revealed that pp125FAK binds Cas-L on its SH3 domain and phosphorylates its tyrosine residues upon β1 integrin stimulation. Since Cas-L is preferentially expressed in lymphocytes, it is conceivable that Cas-L plays an important role in lymphocyte-specific signals. We have shown that Cas-L is involved in the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 signaling pathway as well as the β1 integrin signaling pathway. Cas-L is transiently phosphorylated following CD3 crosslinking and tyrosine-phosphorylated Cas-L binds to Crk and C3G. Furthermore, a Cas-L mutant (Cas-LΔSH3), which lacks the binding site for FAK, is still tyrosine-phosphorylated upon CD3 crosslinking but not upon β1 integrin crosslinking, suggesting that FAK is not involved in CD3-dependent Cas-L phosphorylation. Finally, we have identified a crucial role of Cas-L in β1 integrin-mediated T-cell co-stimulation. We have found that this co-stimulatory pathway is impaired in the Jurkat T-cell line, and that the expression level of Cas-L is reduced in the Jurkat cells compared to peripheral T-cells. The transfection of Cas-L cDNA into Jurkat cells restored the β1 integrin-mediated co-stimulation, while the transfection of Cas-LΔSH3 mutant failed to do so, which contrasts with the case of CD3-mediated signaling. These results indicate that Cas-L plays a key role, through the association and phosphorylation by FAK, in β1 integrin-mediated T-cell co-stimulation. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas-L is critical for T-cell receptor and β1 integrin-induced T-lymphocyte migration. Taken together, Cas-L might be the bi-modal docking protein which assembles the signals through β1 integrins and TCR/CD3, and which participates in a variety of T-cell functions.

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Accession: 055614765

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PMID: 24383527

DOI: 10.3109/s101650070032


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