Short-term modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis and preventive/therapeutic efficacy of various agents in a mammary cancer model
Christov, K.; Grubbs, C.J.; Shilkaitis, A.; Juliana, M.Margaret.; Lubet, R.A.
Clinical Cancer Research An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 13(18 Pt 1): 5488-5496
ISSN/ISBN: 1078-0432 PMID: 17875779 DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-07-0404
The methylnitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary cancer model in rats is similar to estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in women. In prevention studies using this model, tumor incidence and multiplicity were typically primary end points. The ability of various agents administered for a short period to modulate cell proliferation [proliferation index (PI)] and apoptosis [apoptotic index (AI)] in mammary cancers was compared with their efficacy in long-term prevention and therapy studies. Rats were injected with MNU to induce mammary cancers. For the prevention studies, agents were administered by gavage or in the diet beginning 5 days after MNU. For proliferation (PI) and apoptosis (AI) experiments, animals with a palpable mammary cancer were treated with the agents for only 4 to 7 days. PI was determined following 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling whereas AI was determined using the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by measuring cancer size over a 6-week period. Treatments with differing chemopreventive efficacy and mechanism(s) of action were examined: (a) hormonal treatments [tamoxifen, vorozole (an aromatase inhibitor), and ovariectomy]; (b) retinoid X receptor agonists (targretin, 9-cis retinoic acid, and UAB30); (c) inducers of drug-metabolizing enzymes (indole-3-carbinol, 5,6 benzoflavone, and diindoylmethane); (d) agents that alter signal transduction (R115777, a farnesyltransferase inhibitor); Iressa (an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor); sulindac and celecoxib (cyclooxygenase 1/2 and cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors); and (e) diverse agents including meclizine, vitamin C, and sodium phenylbutyrate. Correlations between inhibition of PI, increase of AI, and chemopreventive efficacy were observed. Although most agents with moderate or low preventive efficacy suppressed PI, they minimally affected AI. The data confirmed that the short-term effects of various agents on cell proliferation and apoptosis in small mammary cancers can predict their preventive/therapeutic efficacy. Thus, these biomarkers can be used to help determine the efficacy of compounds in phase II clinical prevention trials.