Surgical patients with chronic pain or chronic postsurgical pain: a prospective analysis of psychological and social factors
Simanski, C.J.P.; Pape-Köhler, C.; Kreutz, K.; Lefering, R.; Hoederath, P.; Hoederath, S.; Althaus, A.; Bouillon, B.; Neugebauer, E.A.M.
Schmerz 27(6): 597-604
ISSN/ISBN: 1432-2129 PMID: 24337426 DOI: 10.1007/s00482-013-1365-3
The interference of biological, social, and psychological factors of the patient, collectively known as the biopsychosocial perspective, plays an important role in the chronification of postsurgical pain. The aim of this pilot study was to detect whether patients suffering from chronic pain without a relationship to a recent operation (CP) differ from chronic pain patients whose pain exists since a recent operation and is related with it (CPSP) in these factors. A step-by-step analysis of patients with chronic pain was conducted via a questionnaire of 36 questions in which mental state, pain, fear, and depression [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - Deutsche Version (HADS-D), Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire (CPGQ, von Korff), SF-12, McGill Pain Questionnaire (sensoric/affective)] were surveyed. Fisher's exact test for counts, U test for continuous variables; group comparisons with: χ(2) test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. On average 29 months postoperatively (24-35 ± 3.5 months), 113 chronic pain patients were analyzed. A group comparison between the CPSP group (n = 73 with chronic postsurgical pain) and the group CP (n = 29 with chronic pain) was conducted. Both groups showed highly significant reductions of SF-12 data compared to a German normal collective (p < 0.001), but normal results regarding depression in the HADS-D and a moderately limiting, highly pain-related limitation in the CPGQ (von Korff III). No differences in the sensoric and affective parameters of the McGill Pain Questionnaire were found. Compared with the CPSP group, the CP group demonstrated higher pain intensities (p = 0.022). Regarding these results critically, there were no group differences concerning psychological and social patient factors in chronic pain patients with or without postsurgical pain.