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Termination of immune activation: an essential component of healthy host immune responses



Termination of immune activation: an essential component of healthy host immune responses



Journal of Innate Immunity 6(6): 727-738



The ideal immune response is rapid, proportionate and effective. Crucially, it must also be finite. An inflammatory response which is disproportionate or lasts too long risks injury to the host; chronic un-regulated inflammation in autoimmune diseases is one example of this. Thus, mechanisms to regulate and ultimately terminate immune responses are central to a healthy immune system. Despite extensive knowledge of what drives immune responses, our understanding of mechanisms of immune termination remains relatively sparse. It is clear that such processes are more complex than a one-dimensional homeostatic balance. Recent discoveries have revealed ever more nuanced mechanisms of signal termination, such as intrinsically self-limiting signals, multiple inhibitory mechanisms acting in tandem and activating proteins behaving differently in a variety of contexts. This review will summarise some important mechanisms, including termination by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM), inhibition by soluble antagonists, receptor endocytosis or ubiquitination, and auto-inhibition by newly synthesised intracellular inhibitory molecules. Several recent discoveries showing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs transducing inhibitory signals, ITIM mediating activating responses and the possible roles of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs will also be explored.

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Accession: 056148074

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 25033984

DOI: 10.1159/000363449


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