The behavior of isopyrazam in aquatic ecosystems: implementation of a tiered investigation
Hand, L.H.; Oliver, R.G.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29(12): 2702-2712
ISSN/ISBN: 1552-8618 PMID: 20891015 DOI: 10.1002/etc.337
Degradation of a new fungicide, isopyrazam, was slow in water-sediment systems maintained in the dark, with degradation half-life (DegT50) values in the total system (water column and sediment) of greater than one year, and only moderately fast in a photolysis study in buffered pure water (DegT50 > 60 d). This indicated that microbial degradation and direct photolysis are not significant loss mechanisms for this compound. Under more realistic conditions, a number of other processes of natural attenuation occur, such as metabolism by aquatic plants, microalgae, and periphyton and indirect photolysis. A photolysis study in sterile natural water, and water-sediment studies incorporating aquatic macrophytes and microalgae under fluorescent light, were therefore conducted to investigate the contribution of these processes to the fate of isopyrazam. Degradation rates were at least one order of magnitude faster in these higher-tier laboratory studies, indicating that all of these processes may have a role to play in complex natural ecosystems. The fate in an outdoor system, designed to mimic conditions in edge-of-field drainage ditches, also was investigated to provide an integrated picture of the contribution of all the different potential loss mechanisms to the overall fate of isopyrazam. The total system DegT50 in the study was similar to that observed in the higher-tier laboratory studies. Furthermore, the pattern of degradation formation allowed for the contribution of the different degradation processes at work in the microcosm study to be contextualized. The implementation of this tiered approach to investigating the aquatic fate of crop protection products provides a comprehensive explanation of the behavior of isopyrazam and clearly demonstrates that it will not persist in the aquatic environment under natural conditions.