The effects of indoor particles on blood pressure and heart rate among young adults in Taipei, Taiwan
Lin, L-Y.; Lin, C-Y.; Lin, Y-C.; Chuang, K-J.
Indoor Air 19(6): 482-488
ISSN/ISBN: 0905-6947 PMID: 19682103 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2009.00612.x
This study aims to evaluate whether indoor particles are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). We recruited 40 young, healthy students from universities in Taipei. We made four home visits in which we took consecutive 48-h measurements of systolic BP, (SBP) diastolic BP (DBP), and HR in each participant. Particulate matter less than 10 microm in diameter (PM(10)), 2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)), and nitrogen dioxide levels were measured at each participant's home. Participants were asked to keep their windows open during the first two visits, and keep their windows shut during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate BP and HR with indoor air pollutants averaged over 1- to 8-h periods prior to physiological measurements. We found indoor PM(10) and PM(2.5) exposures at 1- to 4-h means were associated with an elevation in SBP, DBP, and HR. Effects of indoor PM(10) and PM(2.5) on BP and HR were greatest during the visits with windows open. During windows-closed visits, participants showed no significant change in BP and HR with indoor PM(10) exposure. We concluded that exposures to infiltrated outdoor particles are associated with short-term increases in BP and HR in young and healthy students. Closing windows can reduce indoor PM concentrations and modify the effect of PM(10) on BP and HR in young adults. Particulate matter exposure, high blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) have been reported to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to indoor particles is found to be associated with Elevated BP and HR. Closing windows may reduce indoor particles concentrations and modify the effect of particles on BP and HR in young adults in heavily polluted cities.