+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

The mitochondrial genome of the lycophyte Huperzia squarrosa: the most archaic form in vascular plants

The mitochondrial genome of the lycophyte Huperzia squarrosa: the most archaic form in vascular plants

Plos one 7(4): E35168

Mitochondrial genomes have maintained some bacterial features despite their residence within eukaryotic cells for approximately two billion years. One of these features is the frequent presence of polycistronic operons. In land plants, however, it has been shown that all sequenced vascular plant chondromes lack large polycistronic operons while bryophyte chondromes have many of them. In this study, we provide the completely sequenced mitochondrial genome of a lycophyte, from Huperzia squarrosa, which is a member of the sister group to all other vascular plants. The genome, at a size of 413,530 base pairs, contains 66 genes and 32 group II introns. In addition, it has 69 pseudogene fragments for 24 of the 40 protein- and rRNA-coding genes. It represents the most archaic form of mitochondrial genomes of all vascular plants. In particular, it has one large conserved gene cluster containing up to 10 ribosomal protein genes, which likely represents a polycistronic operon but has been disrupted and greatly reduced in the chondromes of other vascular plants. It also has the least rearranged gene order in comparison to the chondromes of other vascular plants. The genome is ancestral in vascular plants in several other aspects: the gene content resembling those of charophytes and most bryophytes, all introns being cis-spliced, a low level of RNA editing, and lack of foreign DNA of chloroplast or nuclear origin.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 056408149

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 22511984

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035168

Related references

The first complete chloroplast genome sequence of a lycophyte, Huperzia lucidula (Lycopodiaceae). Gene 350(2): 117-128, 2005

A 400,000-year-old mitochondrial genome questions phylogenetic relationships amongst archaic hominins: using the latest advances in ancient genomics, the mitochondrial genome sequence of a 400,000-year-old hominin has been deciphered. Bioessays 36(6): 598-605, 2014

A trans-splicing group I intron and tRNA-hyperediting in the mitochondrial genome of the lycophyte Isoetes engelmannii. Nucleic Acids Research 37(15): 5093-5104, 2009

Squarrosine A and Pyrrolhuperzine A, New Lycopodium Alkaloids from Thai and Philippine Huperzia squarrosa. Planta Medica 82(11-12): 1046-1050, 2016

Anti-cholinesterase activity of lycopodium alkaloids from Vietnamese Huperzia squarrosa (Forst.) Trevis. Molecules 19(11): 19172-9, 2014

Phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins from moss, lycophyte and vascular plant lineages reveals that GRAS genes arose and underwent substantial diversification in the ancestral lineage common to bryophytes and vascular plants. Plant Signaling and Behavior 6(6): 850-854, 2011

Biomechanics of Lycopodiella cernua and Huperzia squarrosa; implications for inferring growth habits of fossil small-bodied lycopsids. Mededelingen Nederlands Instituut voor Toegepaste Geowetenschappen TNO 58(Pages 293-302, 1997

The mitochondrial genome of Malus domestica and the import-driven hypothesis of mitochondrial genome expansion in seed plants. Plant Journal 71(4): 615-626, 2012

Determination of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences reveals that the largest reported mitochondrial genome in plants contains a significant amount of DNA having a nuclear origin. Bmc Genomics 12: 424, 2011

The first terrestrial vascular plants, dated as Silurian; comparison between the Baragwanathia flora of Australia and the psylophyte/ lycophyte flora of North Africa. Comptes-Rendus des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Serie 3: Sciences de la Vie 292(8): 529-532, 1981

Ramification of stele in moss (Bryopsidae). comparison with some archaic vascular plants. 1971

Extranuclear inheritance. a. Mitochondrial genetics Human mitochondrial genome, Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast mitochondrial genomes, also in higher plants. Progress in botany = Fortschritt der Botanik4(44): 286-296, 1982

Root evolution at the base of the lycophyte clade: insights from an Early Devonian lycophyte. Annals of Botany 117(4): 585-598, 2016

Gene organization deduced from the complete sequence of liverwort Marchantia polymorpha mitochondrial DNA. A primitive form of plant mitochondrial genome. Journal of Molecular Biology 223(1): 1-7, 1992

Plant genomics: homoplasy heaven in a lycophyte genome. Current Biology 21(14): R554-R556, 2011