Therapy-related acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with the hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone regimens
Verma, D.; O'Brien, S.; Thomas, D.; Faderl, S.; Koller, C.; Pierce, S.; Kebriaei, P.; Garcia-Manero, G.; Cortes, J.; Kantarjian, H.; Ravandi, F.
Cancer 115(1): 101-106
ISSN/ISBN: 0008-543X PMID: 19090005 DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24005
Secondary malignancies including myeloid neoplasms occur infrequently in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to the authors' knowledge have not been as well documented in adults as in children. A total of 641 patients with de novo ALL who were treated with the hyper-CVAD (hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone) regimen or its variants were analyzed. Sixteen patients (2.49%) developed secondary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (6 patients) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (10 patients). At the time of ALL diagnosis, the median age was 53 years; cytogenetics were normal in 11 patients, pseudo-diploidy with del(2) in 1 patient, t(9;22) in 1 patient, and unavailable in 3 patients. Frontline therapy included hyper-CVAD in 7 patients, hyper-CVAD with rituximab in 8 patients, and hyper-CVAD with imatinib in 1 patient. Karyotype at time of AML/MDS diagnosis was -5, -7 in 9 patients, normal in 1 patient, complex in 1 patient, inv(11) in 1 patient, t(4;11) in 1 patient, del(20) in 1 patient, and unavailable in 2 patients. Secondary AML/MDS developed at a median of 32 months after ALL diagnosis. Cytarabine plus anthracycline-based treatment was given to 12 patients with AML and high-risk MDS. One patient with MDS received arsenic trioxide, 1 received clofarabine, and 2 received decitabine. Response to treatment was complete remission in 3 patients, partial remission in 6 patients, and no response in 6 patients; 1 patient was untreated. Eight patients (1 with AML and 7 with MDS) underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation, and all but 2 died at a median of 3 months (range, 0.5-11 months) after transplantation. The median overall survival after a diagnosis of secondary AML and MDS was 9.25 months (range, 1+ to 26+ months). Secondary AML and MDS occur infrequently in adult patients with de novo ALL treated with the hyper-CVAD regimens, and response to therapy is poor.