Throughfall under a teak plantation in Thailand: a multifactorial analysis on the effects of canopy phenology and meteorological conditions
Tanaka, N.; Levia, D.; Igarashi, Y.; Nanko, K.; Yoshifuji, N.; Tanaka, K.; Tantasirin, C.; Suzuki, M.; Kumagai, T.'o.
International Journal of Biometeorology 59(9): 1145-1156
ISSN/ISBN: 1432-1254 PMID: 25394393 DOI: 10.1007/s00484-014-0926-1
Valuable teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) plantations cover vast areas throughout Southeast Asia. This study sought to increase our understanding of throughfall inputs under teak by analyzing the abiotic and biotic factors governing throughfall amounts and ratios in relation to three canopy phenophases (leafless, leafing, and leafed). There was no rain during the brief leaf senescence phenophase in our study. Leveraging detailed field observations, we employed boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis to identify the primary controls on throughfall amount and ratio during each canopy phenophase. Whereas throughfall amounts were always dominated by rainfall magnitude (as expected), throughfall ratios were governed by a suite of predictor variables during each phenophase. The BRT analysis demonstrated that throughfall ratio in the leafless phase was most influenced (in descending order of importance) by air temperature, rainfall amount, maximum wind speed, and rainfall intensity. Throughfall ratio in the leafed phenophase was dominated by rainfall amount. The leafing phenophase was an intermediate case where rainfall amount, air temperature, and vapor pressure deficit were most important. Our results highlight the fact that throughfall ratios are differentially influenced by a suite of meteorological variables during each canopy phenophase. Abiotic variables, such as rainfall amount and air temperature, trumped leaf area index and stand density in their effect on throughfall ratio. The leafing phenophase, while transitional in nature and short in duration, has a detectable and unique impact on water inputs to teak plantations. Further work is needed to better understand the biogeochemistry of leaf emergence in teak plantations.